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The intestinal labours of Paris
Gilles Thomas

1  The belly and the viscera of the capital city Gilles Thomas The good city of Paris is known only on its surface; if the hand of God were to tear away the skin, bristling with houses, that covers the entrails of the ground within a circumference of twenty leagues, our eyes would be terrified by these subterranean revelations, these formidable arcana that the sun will never enlighten, these marvellous treasures stashed away by the miserly centuries, and that no eye can see, no hand remove. We walk, we laugh and we play on a carpet composed of remarkable things

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century

This book seeks to challenge the notion of the supremacy of the brain as the key organ of the Enlightenment. It is done by focusing on the workings of the bowels and viscera that so obsessed writers and thinkers during the long eighteenth-century. These inner organs and the digestive process acted as counterpoints to politeness and other modes of refined sociability, drawing attention to the deeper workings of the self. The book complicates the idea that discourses and representations of digestion and bowels are confined to so-called consumption culture of the long eighteenth century, in which dysfunctional bowels are categorised as a symptom of excess. It offers an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective on entrails and digestion by addressing urban history, visual studies, literature, medical history, religious history, and material culture in England, France, and Germany. The book explores the metaphorical and symbolic connections between the entrails of the body and the bowels of the city or the labyrinthine tunnels of the mine. It then illustrates the materiality of digestion by focusing on its by-products and their satirical or epistemological manifestations. The book expounds further on the burlesque motif of the innards as it is used to subvert areas of more serious knowledge, from medical treatises to epic literature or visual representation. Finally, it focuses on drawings, engravings and caricatures which used the bowels, viscera and entrails to articulate political protest, Revolutionary tensions and subversion through scatological aesthetics, or to expose those invisible organs.

Emily Cock

significant impairments of sight and speech, and a recognised social disability in her reduced marital chances and stigmatising facial marks. Because the Dines met the Coventry Act's additional requirements for malice aforethought and lying in wait, they were convicted and sentenced to death. While all assaults on the nose were related to honour and social capital, some can be read as more directly economic attacks. The role of nasal injury as a social and economic disability for women was highlighted by a woman petitioning for support in 1634, who argued that ‘a blow

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Martin Atherton

conflict brings out those aspects of the culture of deaf people that are unique and separate from other cultural groups’, through which they emphasise the differences between themselves and their non-deaf counterparts.27 At this point, it is appropriate to mention briefly Bourdieu’s concept of social capital and the role this plays in community bonding. While it is not the intention to revisit the many and various examples academics have put for forward to show how social capital can be acquired, the concept will be touched upon here and addressed again in later chapters

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Sabine Barles and André Guillerme

2  The intestinal labours of Paris Sabine Barles and André Guillerme After 1760, the flatulence of the capital became increasingly noticeable – evidence of a putrid fermentation which was spreading and intensifying. Paris stank of nitrate, while London gave off the sulphurous vapours of an infernal city. As Paris became more crowded, London sprawled. Here they wallowed in damp and vapours, there they coughed and choked in coal smoke: Paris clutched at its belly, London held its breath. Paris was constantly foul-smelling, although more or less critically so

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Mallorca (Balearic Islands), 1820–70
Joana Maria Pujadas-Mora and Pere Salas-Vives

the outbreaks of plague in Son Servera, Artà and Capdepera (eastern region) in 1820, and of yellow fever in Palma in 1821. In both these outbreaks similar procedures were implemented. First, as was mandatory, a blockade was put into practice, which affected the full length of Mallorca’s littoral. Once the plague broke out in Son Servera, the town was cordoned off by the army to prevent the entry or exit of people. Finally, the rest of the island’s towns, including the capital Palma, proceeded to set their own inland cordons, for which they mobilised their respective

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914
Abstract only
Krista Maglen

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 11/01/2013, SPi Conclusion Yesterday marked World TB Day, the day in 1882 when Dr Robert Koch announced that he had discovered the cause of TB, the TB bacillus: 130 years later, London is the capital of TB in western Europe ... This is in part because of high immigration but also, according to the WHO’s Dr Mario Raviglione, it is a result of the reluctance of the British government to comply with international standards and recommendations on notifications and the need for greater co-operation between departments, particularly the

in The English System
More than just passing the time
Martin Atherton

capital.6 Through the clubs’ activities, the cultural elements of deaf social life were accessed and expressed, and these activities provided members with an important means by which to accrue social and cultural capital. Deaf clubs were the main means by which these types of capital were acquired by deaf people, as they were often the only places in which anything approaching a ‘normal’ social life could be found. By providing both social and cultural capital, the cultural aspects of deaf life eventually became more overtly important as the deaf community as a whole

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Open Access (free)
Health as moral economy in the long nineteenth century
Christopher Hamlin

amplifying infection of irritability as people complain about complaining – a ‘mood contagion’, as Kowalski puts it. 13 The ‘moral’ in ‘moral economy’ was fragile. The equilibration Thompson's actors seek depended on some shared notion of the legitimacy of some complaints. These were in part functions of the supposedly objective biomedical currencies that circulated in this ‘moral economy’. If current enlistments of ‘complaint’ often bring loss of social capital, it behooves us to look more closely at the conditions of its

in Progress and pathology
Osamu Nakamura

8 Patient work and family care at Iwakura, Japan, c. 1799–1970 Osamu Nakamura Iwakura is a village located seven kilometres northeast of Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan. It has a famous legend. During the reign of Emperor Go-Sanjo (reigned 1068–72), a princess who was afflicted with a mental condition was cured after praying to the image of Buddha at Daiunji-Temple in Iwakura and drinking water from the temple well.1 This is a well-known story that highlights the connection between Iwakura and mental illness. It was not uncommon for those suffering from a

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015