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3 The celebrations in the capital The proclamation had been made; now the actual work of organising the Festival with all its complex constructions and detailed movements of materials and people could begin. Obviously the celebrations in the capital were to be the most spectacular of all, and the plan of his design for the Festival which David presented to the Convention immediately after Robespierre’s speech of 18 Floréal (7 May) begins with a passage of purple prose to set the mood. ‘Scarcely has dawn broken when the sound of martial music is heard from all

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
Knowledge institutions and the rebalancing of power, 1937– 73

From British rule the independent Irish state inherited an effectively denominational system of university education and a complementary set of science and arts institutions. Under independent rule denominational influence increased and resource starvation prevailed until the end of the 1950s. Then, as the formation of human capital, education began to be treated as an input into economic growth and American initiatives stimulated new research activity. These changes played a vital role in the rebalancing of power between the Catholic Church and the state. Social science, where the Catholic Church had been a monopoly provider, supplies a dramatic case study of the interlinking of this power shift with the process of knowledge generation.

assimilation into France, exploited by the royal governor, who aspired to reconstruct the ancient duchy of Brittany.3 Nantes played a central role in the Bretons’ rebellion against the crown. In Charles Laronze’s view, the League was above all else an urban movement, where the Breton towns fought in defence of their commercial interests, political privileges and religious beliefs. From 1589 Nantes became Mercoeur’s ‘capital’, the site of the League’s provincial administration with a parlement and Chambre des Comptes. The city wanted to become the capital of Brittany, to

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
The search for a republican morality

In Year 2 of the Revolution (1794) Robespierre, seeking to establish a new deist national morality created the Festival of the Supreme Being celebrated on 20 Prairial Year 2 (8 June 1794). This book begins by tracing the progress in the development of Robespierre’s thinking on the importance of the problem which the lack of any acceptable national moral system through the early years of the Revolution had created, his vision of a new attitude towards religion and morality, and why he chose a Revolutionary Festival to launch his idea. It focusses on the importance of the Festival by showing that it was not only a major event in Paris, with a huge man-made mountain on the Champ de Mars; it was also celebrated in great depth in almost every city, town and village throughout France. It seeks to redefine the importance of the Festival in the history of the Revolution, not, as historians have traditionally dismissed it, merely as the performance of a sterile and compulsory political duty, but on the contrary, as a massively popular national event. The author uses source material from national and local archives describing the celebrations as well as the reaction to the event and its importance by contemporary commentators. This is the first book since the 1980s and the only work in English to focus on this Festival and to redefine its importance in the development of the Revolution.

failed in its positive goal of bringing a vocationalist Irish social infrastructure into being. Moreover the Irish Catholic Church was divided during the early decades of Irish independent statehood by critiques of banking and finance capital formulated within this movement and ecclesiastical disciplinary mechanisms were invoked to hierarchically silence some of its radical voices. During the Second World War/​Emergency changes in the wider world and developments within Irish politics provided Ireland’s Catholic social movement with an alternative focus around which it

in Church, state and social science in Ireland

is the basis for the theory of surplus value which explains capitalist exploitation, and Manning nears it by aligning the church with labour. Manning thus reassuringly quotes Adam Smith; ‘The property which every man has in his own labour, as it is the original foundation of all The ‘greening’ of Cardinal Manning 249 other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable’; in order to ‘claim for labour the rights of property’.53 He then invades sacred ground, ‘I claim for labour … the rights of capital’, and plays with the etymology of ‘capital’ to dub: the

in Irish Catholic identities
Refugee industrialists in the Manchester region

government strategy of deploying displaced (and chiefly Jewish) industrialists to ease Britain’s economic and social ills was pursued with ever-increasing energy and a growing degree of success.5 While simultaneous attempts were being made to persuade native industrialists to relocate to the Special Areas, foreign firms were particularly welcome since, while equally eligible for the preferential terms relating to rent and rates offered to all industrialists, few of the refugees required the additional financial assistance (up to 50% of their capital costs) claimed by most

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Abstract only

executioners posted a record total of ninety-seven executions. The effect was immediate in Paris, but, given the chaotic nature of communication between the capital and the provinces, the news both of the new law and of the re-erection of the guillotine would not have reached the majority of provincial cities for at least another three to five days. Although there is no direct record of the celebrations continuing outside Paris, it is reasonable to assume that the general level of euphoria would have continued in many areas, while everyone was waiting for further good news

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
Myth or reality?

). Others combined like offices. The attempts of kings to take over churches, to dominate them, to use them as sanctuary, exacerbated the violence. The frequent burnings of churches, of which reports begin in 710, are due mainly to arson during attacks and not to unfortunate accidents.56 Given this level of violence, it is understandable but deplorable that the Irish church should urge capital punishment with an unseemly readiness. This occurs in two forms: in the thaumaturgy of the saints and, formally, in the legal texts. In the early Patrician hagiography, Patrick is

in Irish Catholic identities
Jewish identity in late Victorian Leeds

set of regional identities within the immigrant population. Northern Pale Litvaks and Southern Polaks, for instance, were both represented in the capital and in other provincial towns. The Lancet , however, stated that ‘the greater part [of the Leeds community] come from the province of Kovno’, and further research has centred on an area 75 miles in radius around the modern Lithuanian city of Kaunas. 11 The pattern of formation of chevroth in Leeds somewhat complicates this picture: the Lithuanian town of Marijampole, which gave its

in Leeds and its Jewish Community