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St Michael and All Angels, Sowton and St Mary the Virgin, Ottery St Mary

THIS CHAPTER will explore how windows were used in two specific ecclesiastical interiors and what aspirations patrons and architects had for the stained glass in these churches. The preceding case studies have examined how glass-painters made and promoted their windows and it is now necessary to look at stained glass from the patron’s perspective. The two glazing projects described in this chapter

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival
Religion and freemasonry

6 The buildings of ritual: religion and freemasonry In the nineteenth century, the leaders of the distinctively post-Reformation British denominations of the Christian Church realised that they had the opportunity to create world churches with a truly global reach. This challenge was presented by the combination of the expansion of empire with its growing number of settlers and the rise of evangelicalism, not least in respect of the urge to convert indigenous people. Ultimately these ambitions were not confined to empire since such churches came to be built

in The British Empire through buildings

IN THE HANDS of a clergyman like John Edwin Lance, stained glass was more than just decoration. In his newly rebuilt church at Buckland St Mary in Somerset, he used stained glass to vary the quality of the light entering the building, and so change our experience of the interior. Richly painted windows surrounding the chancel and baptistry announce that here are the key liturgical areas, while the

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival

been described as starting life as a pottery painter. 3 Further evidence of Bell’s connection to the ceramics trade exists in the form of two designs for porcelain, held at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 4 Bell trained in Dublin and London before establishing his business in Bristol in 1840. By 1843 he was a highly skilled glass-painter, as can be seen from the east window of the south aisle at Rattery Church in Devon ( Plate 6

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival

This book presents a study that is an attempt to understand the phenomenal increase in the production and demand for stained glass between about 1835 and 1860. The book provides both history and context for thousands of Victorian stained-glass windows that exist in churches across the country. It aims to: ask why people became interested in stained glass; examine how glass-painters set up their studios; and understand how they interacted with each other and their patrons. To understand why so many windows were commissioned and made in the Victorian period, readers need to understand how buying a stained-glass window became a relatively ordinary thing to do. In order to examine this, the book focuses on those who wrote or spoke about stained glass in the formative years of the revival. It is important to look at the production of stained glass as a cultural exchange: a negotiation in both financial and cultural terms that was profitable for both glass-painter and patron. The history of Victorian stained glass allows an examination of many other areas of nineteenth-century cultural history. Readers can learn a lot about the aesthetics of the Gothic Revival, ecclesiology, the relationship between 'fine' and 'decorative' art, and the circulation of art history in the 1840s. While many interesting glass-painters have necessarily been omitted, the author hopes that the case studies in the book will provide a point of reference for the research of future scholars.

Jonathon Shears

, the broad church and, most significantly amongst the press, the Daily News and the Illustrated London News.6 Objecting to the plans were the Protectionist wing of the Tory party, high church Anglicans and conservative organs of the press such as The Times, Blackwood’s and John Bull. Many of the reservations need to be set in the context of those typical English anxieties about the working classes and foreigners (explored in greater depth in Chapters 3 and 5 in this book). The revolution of 1848 in France, and the Chartist riots at home, still loomed large in the

in The Great Exhibition, 1851
From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

How and why the market spread

WITH all the preceding information in mind, why did the market for stained glass increase so dramatically between 1840 and 1860? Several explanations have already been offered. The underlying cause was that the Church of England recognised the need for internal revival and building more churches was seen as a way of achieving this. The form that many of these churches took was determined by the

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival
The moral life and the state

point, and whether it did so successfully, by focusing on the principal issues that were at stake for clergy and laity alike in Cameron’s interpretation and in relation to the accepted doctrines of the Church of England. For example, did Cameron and her contemporaries regard her photographs as sacred and devotional, to be revered like holy icons or objects that possessed mystical power, or did they embrace a more secular function, using ancient morality tales containing ‘essential truths’ as a way to communicate worldly lessons for the present day? In other words: did

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’

was born in 1812, 4 the only son of John Toms and Elizabeth Taylor. 5 He married Sarah Salway and had five children: two sons and three daughters. The earliest document relating to him is a tender for re-seating a church in 1842, and he died in 1869. 6 By 1848 he was a competent glass-painter and a few years later submitted a window to the Great Exhibition of 1851. 7 Stained glass became a major element in Toms

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival