Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

photographs gathered by UNMISS showed that the capture of Leer had been immediately followed by the destruction of large parts of the town, primarily by fire, including public infrastructure, markets, churches and local housing ( UNMISS, 2014 : 47). In the days that followed, government armed forces pursued the population in the surrounding areas, forcing the displaced, including MSF staff, to retreat deeper and deeper into the bush. After trying to hide the cars, which were quickly stolen by

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

a majority of humanitarian practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This article discusses how Armenians have collected, displayed and exchanged the bones of their murdered ancestors in formal and informal ceremonies of remembrance in Dayr al-Zur, Syria – the final destination for hundreds of thousands of Armenians during the deportations of 1915. These pilgrimages – replete with overlapping secular and nationalist motifs – are a modern variant of historical pilgrimage practices; yet these bones are more than relics. Bone rituals, displays and vernacular memorials are enacted in spaces of memory that lie outside of official state memorials, making unmarked sites of atrocity more legible. Vernacular memorial practices are of particular interest as we consider new archives for the history of the Armenian Genocide. The rehabilitation of this historical site into public consciousness is particularly urgent, since the Armenian Genocide Memorial Museum and Martyr’s Church at the centre of the pilgrimage site were both destroyed by ISIS (Islamic State in Syria) in 2014.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

of the Church was such that it was able to forbid Christian knights from using certain weapons as hateful to God. Thus in 1139 the Second Lateran Council condemned the use of the crossbow and arc, a view that coincided with the concept of chivalry which regarded such weapons as disgraceful, since they could be used from a distance, thus enabling a man to strike without the risk of himself being

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

and 128 in the Constitution of Czechoslovakia, Article 109 in the Constitution of the German Reich, Article 7 in the Constitution of the Republic of Austria. 61 Article 4. 62 See Thomas Mohr, ‘The Rights of Women under the Constitution of the Irish Free State’ (2006) 41 Irish Jurist 20, 24. 63 Ibid., 35. 60 92 Themes and influences above, it is surprising and disappointing that the general equality guarantee failed to survive the final document. Religion and the Church One notable absence from the list of influences is the Roman Catholic Church. This is

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
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functioned. It is also referred to in Article 37 which provides for ‘functional autonomy for the different branches of social service and economic life’. That Article also specifies that ‘legislation shall determine the advisory, supervisory, and administrative capacity of such Councils’. We are not provided with any more information on how such councils would operate. Article 57 provides that the teaching of religion in schools was to be obligatory but Article 59 states that there was to be no state-endowed church24 and guarantees free practice of religion ‘in so far as

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution

attack upon that object will make to ultimate victory or the success of the operation of which the attack is part. If there is any doubt whether objects normally devoted to civilian use, such as a church, school or museum, are being used for their proper purpose or being put to military use, they must be given the benefit of the doubt and not subjected to attack. In deciding whether an objective is or is

in The contemporary law of armed conflict
Abstract only

law of the church which forbids ecclesiastics to shed blood is a convenient device for dispensing from the duty of fighting persons who are often ready to fan the flames of discord and to provoke bloody wars. . . . [Only those should be exempt] who are engaged in teaching religion, in governing the Church, and in celebrating public worship

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

be given the benefit of the doubt and remain immune from attack. 28 Such immunity would not extend to dwellings inhabited by munitions workers if established within the perimeter of the munitions works, nor to churches or schools used for the purpose of providing rest centres for troops after an engagement, as, for example, after the British withdrawal from Dunkirk in 1940

in The contemporary law of armed conflict

, including mutilation or other maltreatment of dead bodies, 103 and this includes such practices as taking ears as proof of a body count; looting or gathering trophies, an offence confirmed a contrario by the Prisoners of War Convention, which indicates the property a prisoner may keep; using privileged buildings, such as schools, churches or cultural establishments, as resting places for the forces 104 or to secure

in The contemporary law of armed conflict