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Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

photographs gathered by UNMISS showed that the capture of Leer had been immediately followed by the destruction of large parts of the town, primarily by fire, including public infrastructure, markets, churches and local housing ( UNMISS, 2014 : 47). In the days that followed, government armed forces pursued the population in the surrounding areas, forcing the displaced, including MSF staff, to retreat deeper and deeper into the bush. After trying to hide the cars, which were quickly stolen by

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

a majority of humanitarian practitioners, we can define it as a commitment to three things: the equal moral worth of all human lives (i.e. non-discrimination on principle), the moral priority of the claims of individuals over the authority claims of any collective entity – from nations to churches to classes to families – and a belief that as a moral commitment (one that transcends any sociological or political boundary) there is a just and legitimate reason to intervene in any and all circumstances where human beings suffer (even if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catholic human rights discourse in Northern Ireland in the 1980s

, human rights has historically been recognised as an important issue in IR with ­important ramifications for peace. Despite the historic concern, definitions of human rights remain contested, with tensions persisting between secular and religious meanings, leading in some cases to clashes between the two.2 This chapter highlights the important role that the Catholic Church has played in conceptualising, defining, and attempting to promote the realisation of human rights around the world, including Northern Ireland. The Catholic Church has long been recognised for

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
History of a concept

This book is about friendship between sovereign political agents, whose role in the modern world is performed by states. It focuses on relations of friendship that bind together whole polities. Apart from bilateral friendships, the world has seen multiple attempts to posit friendship as the true foundation of a properly organised international community. The attempts range from the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through Churches, to the United Nations Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States. There are two basic roles that friendship can play in the discourses on international relations. The first is as an anthropomorphic metaphor for the relations between states. The second functions as a constituent part of a normative argument seeking a change in international relations. The book highlights common ways in which classical literature uses the concept of friendship in the context of relations with foreign powers. David Ramsay references to 'the ties of ancient friendship' as an important gesture in communication with native Americans. The ethical concept of political friendship is never strictly separated from the performance of political roles. Samuel Pufendorf's description of commonwealths as moral persons stirred up intense debate over how to conceive the sum of such artificial persons and the relations between them. Finally, the book talks about normative and 'naturalist' consensual understanding by scrutinising the justificatory functions of friendship in diplomatic agreements.

Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

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Northern Ireland and International Relations theory

OF IR AND NORTHERN IRELAND women achieving electoral representation minimised their role in making and building peace, but their exclusion suggests that male forms of social organisation and power relationships have tended to perpetuate conflict and violence. Power’s Chapter 7 focuses on the important role that the Catholic Church came to play in Northern Ireland in the 1980s. Her research connects the argument made by Huntington and others that the Catholic Church became a more important actor in world politics in this decade. Power demonstrates that this was

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
Meghalaya’s experience

peacebuilding institution of the Garo tribe is the Laskar, or ‘judge’ elected by a group of villages. Traditionally the Laskar was the first contact point in the community to seek peace and justice, especially in relation to offences that did not fall under the Indian Penal Code. However the salience of the Laskar has been undermined through law and justice enforcement reforms. Yet another platform of peacebuilding has been the Christian church, including the United Churches Peace Forum, Shillong Khasi Jaintia Church Leaders’ Forum, and the Meghalaya Baptist Convention. Many

in Cultures of governance and peace
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Russian men and 7 per cent of women attended religious services once a month or more; by 1998 that figure had risen to 5 per cent and 13 per cent respectively.11 Such a revival in religious activity did not only benefit traditional Russian religious groups, in particular the Russian Orthodox Church, but also many other groups with origins in the West for which the curiosity factor was even higher. A more important cultural shift than is reflected in the actual rise in church attendance came in the visible presence of many different religious groupings. Some – such as

in Securitising Russia
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reached its summit in 1994 when she became Pro-Vice-Chancellor at Queen’s University, and the first woman to serve in that role. Her academic career did not, however, shut out involvement in public affairs. In 1984, she was a member of the Catholic Church Episcopal Delegation to the New Ireland Forum, set up under the premiership of Dr Garret Fitzgerald (qv). In 1996, in the wake of the widespread disturbances which had broken out over parading, the British government set up the Independent Review of Parades and Marches chaired by Dr (later Sir) Peter North. Here, too

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century

) mentions six ‘cities of refuge’ that offered protection to people who had accidentally killed another person, thus articulating sanctuary at the urban scale. Sanctuary, however, is not necessarily a spatially fixed practice of offering protection within a territorial jurisdiction, but can also be understood as a relational and mobile practice (Darling, 2010 ). Ancient Roman law dating back to 392 CE granted sanctuary privileges to churches rather than gated cities (Lippert, 2005 ). The practice of church sanctuary continued in medieval Europe, granting protection from

in Sanctuary cities and urban struggles