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As the very foundation of the medieval Church’s attitude to the Jews was Scripture, it is proper to begin with some of the texts which particularly influenced the teaching given to Catholics. Included here are some verses from the Gospels and from one of Paul’s epistles. These passages are presented in the Latin of the Vulgate Bible, in which they would

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
C. E. Beneš

name of Peter Leone, whom they called Anacletus; to this Anacletus the Roman people also devoted its favour and assistance. 7 This Anacletus pillaged the entire treasury of the church and distributed it to his supporters, and on account of his influence the aforesaid Innocent was unable to stay in the City, so he was rowed in Genoese galleys to Genoa in the year of the Lord 1130. Now, this Pope Innocent had

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa

As European politics, society, economy and religion underwent epoch-making changes between 1400 and 1600, the treatment of Europe's Jews by the non-Jewish majority was, then as in later periods, a symptom of social problems and tensions in the Continent as a whole. This book discusses the history and background of the Jewish presence in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe. As far as the late medieval Church was concerned, the basis for the treatment of Jews, by ecclesiastical and secular authorities, was to be found in the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council of the Roman Church, which were issued in 1215. The book is concerned with Jewish economic activities for their own sake, and Jews' financial relations with Christian rulers. It then concentrates on other aspects of the dealings which went on between European Jews and their Christian neighbours. The book includes the Jews' own economic presence and culture, social relations between Jews and Christians, the policies and actions of Christian authorities in Church and State. It draws upon original source material to convey ordinary people's prejudices about Jews, including myths about Jewish 'devilishness', money-grabbing, and 'ritual murder' of Christian children. Finally, the book demonstrates from the outset that much of the treatment of European Jews, in the period up to the Reformation and thereafter, was to be a practical result of the controversies within 'Christendom' on the subject of authority, whether ecclesiastical or secular.

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Thirteenth-century exempla from the British Isles

Exempla, the stories with which preachers enlivened their sermons and impressed salutary moral lessons on their hearers, have long been appreciated as a source of key importance for medieval history. They played an important part in popular preaching and yet, for all the work being published on preaching and on the mendicant orders more generally, little of the abundant primary material is available in English translation. This book presents translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. One, the Liber Exemplorum (LE), was compiled by an English Franciscan working in Ireland. The other, probably the work of an English Dominican based in Cambridge (DC), is represented by fifty-two stories, about one-sixth of the total. These two collections are important because they are among the earliest to survive from the British Isles. Their short, pithy narratives are not limited to matters of Church doctrine and practice, but touch on a wide range of more mundane matters and provide vivid snapshots of medieval life in the broadest sense. The first part of the collection is chiefly devoted to Christ and the Virgin, the Mass and the saving power of the Cross. The second part has exempla on a wide variety of doctrinal, moral and other topics. These include the vices, the virtues, the sacraments and church practice, and the sins and other failings thought to beset particular professions or groups.

Editor: C. E. Beneš

This book provides the first English translation of the Chronicle of the city of Genoa by the thirteenth-century Dominican Jacopo da Varagine (also known as Jacobus de Voragine). While Jacopo is better known for his monumental compilation of saints’ lives, the Golden legend, his lesser known Chronicle of Genoa exemplifies the important medieval genre of the civic chronicle. The work mixes scholarly research about the city’s origins with narrative accounts based on Genoese archival sources, more didactic and moral reflections on the proper conduct of public and private life, and personal accounts of Jacopo’s own experience as archbishop of Genoa from 1292 until his death in 1298. Divided into twelve parts, the work covers the history of Genoa from its ancient origins up to Jacopo’s own day. Jacopo’s first-hand accounts of events in which he himself participated—such as the great civic reconciliation of 1295, over which he himself presided—provide a valuable contrast to the more scholarly and didactic sections of the work. Together they form an integrated, coherent approach to urban history, which illustrates some of the most important styles of historiography in the Middle Ages.

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Faith, religion and observance before the Reformation

This book seeks to explore the nature of religious belief and practice in pre-Reformation England. For most people in England the main access to the Bible, and indeed to instruction in the faith, would be through hearing priests from their pulpits. The book demonstrates with immediacy and potency the diverse expressions of faith and observance. It discusses the varieties of spirituality in later medieval England and the ways in which they received expression, through participation in church services, actions like pilgrimages, charitable foundations, devotional readings and instruction. Opposition to prevailing spirituality, expressed through 'Lollardy', is also considered. There is a great deal of written evidence for both the theory and the practice of late medieval English religion and spirituality. The mass was the central ceremony of the Church: the consecration of the bread and wine to become the body and blood of Christ. Within Christianity, the principal focus of devotion was necessarily the divinity, in particular Christ, the second person of the Trinity. While there was considerable concern to accumulate spiritual benefits during life, the most important issue was to secure salvation after death. For those who sought advanced domestic spiritual satisfaction, an episcopal licence for the celebration of divine offices within a private chapel or oratory was necessary.

C. E. Beneš

to us. We must not omit to note, however, that for all the bishops between Valentine and Theodulf, we have their names, but we have been unable to find their dates. That said, we know for certain that Saint Syrus, who was the third bishop [after Valentine], lived before the time of the pope Saint Gregory because this Gregory explicitly mentions the church of Saint Syrus, bishop of Genoa, in his book of Dialogues . 2

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
E.A. Jones

the external walls of a parish church, ‘under the eaves of the church’, as Ancrene Wisse puts it. 4 The foundations of a stone-built anchorhold at Leatherhead (Surrey) indicate a building 2.43 m square. The plan of the reclusory at Compton in the same county [ 8 ] was even smaller, but it had two storeys, as did the no-longer-extant cell occupied by John Lacy in Newcastle-upon-Tyne [ 23 ]. (See also

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
E.A. Jones

hand, these were men and women of strong religious commitment, and (one must assume) a deep sense of engagement with questions of faith, who nevertheless had not found what they were looking for in the established forms of living that the mainstream institutional church offered them. So perhaps it is not entirely surprising that one of the early preachers of Wycliffite heresy in Leicester should have been the hermit William Swinderby [ 60 ]. A few

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
E.A. Jones

antiphons. The reclusory attached to the church of St Anne, Lewes (Sussex), had a squint so positioned that, in order to see the high altar, the anchoress there would have had to kneel in her own grave [ 29 ]. Ancrene Wisse elaborates upon the practical and spiritual rationale for the open grave: Admiring their own white hands is bad for many anchoresses

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550