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The Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery
Stephen Snelders

a working relationship between the colonial state and the Roman Catholic Church. This was possible because of the ambivalence in governmental policies regarding the management of the Batavia asylum. The vast majority of the sufferers in the asylum were a special category of slaves; they were unproductive. Since the slaves only cost the government money, it was unwilling to invest resources in the asylum. For instance, although the asylum was established in 1824, medical services were only provided in the 1850s. To provide support and sustenance for the sufferers

in Leprosy and colonialism
Open Access (free)
The ‘pathology’ of childhood in late nineteenth-century London
Steven Taylor

supervising, controlling, and disciplining individual bodies. 3 With regard to ‘child rescue’, the moniker given to evangelical attempts at ‘improving’ the lives of children living in poverty in the late nineteenth century, the scholarship is less complete, especially when it comes to the sick and disabled. 4 By considering the treatment and experience of the impaired/disabled child in a voluntary organisation, the Church of England-sponsored Waifs and Strays Society, this

in Progress and pathology
Jacques Gélis

Church. In Catholic countries, the healing and fertilising caves, springs and stones had been replaced by a variety of saints of the bowels, to whom their devotees similarly prayed for restoration of their intestinal health. Eighteenth-century parishioners suffering from various bellyaches still fervently prayed for the intercession of the saints.1 The head was the seat of our noble functions – and in the lives of the saints the torments of a recalcitrant martyr often ended 311 Visualising the viscera in decapitation; the belly, on the other hand, was a much more

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Reorganizing leprosy care, 1890– 1900
Stephen Snelders

pillarization of leprosy care in Suriname was an early instance of general pillarization across the Dutch empire that was triggered by the particularities of the Surinamese situation. Pillarization gave Catholics and Protestants the political and institutional space to take care of their own sufferers and incorporated the Moravians in addition to the Catholics in healthcare. In 1894, the Moravians were the largest religious group in Suriname with almost 25,000 members. Together with the smaller Calvinist ‘Nederlandsch-​Hervormde’ (‘Dutch Reformed’) Church with almost 6

in Leprosy and colonialism
Carol Helmstadter

convents, under the protection of the church, Sisters could actually work in slums, prisons, or hospitals. As a result there was a tremendous surge in the founding of sisterhoods throughout Western Europe during the nineteenth century. In France alone 400 Roman Catholic congregations and convents were established between 1800 and 1880. 1 The possibility of having a real career which the Catholic sisterhoods offered is one reason why Nightingale considered converting to Roman Catholicism. 2 In the Church of England, where convents and

in Beyond Nightingale
Sasha Handley

Richard Allestree, Church of England clergyman, Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford and author of the bestselling The Whole Duty of Man, first published in 1657. Allestree declared that peaceful sleep was ordained by God ‘as a medicine to that weariness, as a repairer of that decay, so that we may be enabled to such labours as the duties of Religion or works of our Calling require of us’.11 In Christian culture the very need for sleep was closely linked to human frailty. Psalm 121 of the King James Bible affirmed that ‘he who keeps Israel will neither slumber nor

in Conserving health in early modern culture
Ian Atherton

outcasts from excommunicates to suicides.3 ‘Decent’ or ‘proper’ burial meant interment in a designated burial place (usually a church or churchyard) in a shroud or coffin, usually in a single grave, with the body laid on its back and orientated east-west, accompanied by customary religious and social rites. Many Protestant writers tried hard to square the circle of biblical precedent for decent burial, alongside the teachings of reformed theology which were often allergic to ideas of sacred space, and general Christian ideas that the fate of the body after death did not

in Battle-scarred
Martin Atherton

experienced in the deaf schools.16 The Church of England was the major provider and supporter of deaf people, which was in keeping with the long tradition of church groups taking responsibility for the education and welfare of deaf people.17 The change in the Poor Law then gave an added impetus to the development of welfare societies generally, not merely those that provided for deaf people. Lees notes the growth in institutions and asylums from 1760 onwards, with asylums founded for such socially unacceptable groups as prostitutes, urchins and illegitimate children, all of

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain
Royalist hospital provision during the First Civil War
Eric Gruber von Arni

population of Oxford had reached approximately 10,000, to which a further 3,000 were added during the following winter.5 Following the first major pitched battle, at Edgehill in Warwickshire on 23 October 1642, royalist casualties left behind by their army found little sympathy among the predominantly parliamentarian sympathisers of the surrounding villages. Little evidence survives related to the circumstances of their evacuation. While a few casualties were cared for locally, most were transported to Oxford in wagons and deposited in various churches, almshouses

in Battle-scarred
Martin Atherton

had long played an important part in the spiritual and social lives of the region, with the numerous churches also being the organisers of a variety of social and sporting activities for their congregations. The processions served both a religious and a social purpose, with all the churches in a town joining together to march behind 110 deaFness, coMMunitY and cuLture in Britain their own banners, although there were strict demarcations concerning who marched when. In Preston, the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Free Churches marched on separate days over the

in Deafness, community and culture in Britain