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Ian Wood

5 Reform and the Merovingian Church Ian Wood The Carolingian Church has long been recognised as marking a highpoint in the religious history of the early Middle Ages, though our understanding of that Church has been radically and sympathetically transformed in recent years by a remarkable generation of (predominantly female) scholars, and not least by Mayke de Jong.1 By contrast, the Merovingian Church has been rather less sympathetically treated. The standard picture is that from the end of the sixth century it was an institution that was in need of reform

in Religious Franks
Kathleen G. Cushing

A ROUND the year 1000, the Latin Church in many ways defined western Europe. Through a string of chapels, churches, monasteries and clergy extending from Ireland into eastern Europe and beyond the Elbe and Saale Rivers, from the Scandinavian countries to the northern Iberian peninsula, and especially in the European heartlands of Italy, France and the German Empire, the Latin Church was beginning physically to dominate the landscape of western Europe. It also began the immense task of trying to reshape the thought patterns of its many peoples. Led by the

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Monastic exemption in France, c. 590– c. 1100

This book examines the history of monastic exemption in France. It maps an institutional story of monastic freedom and protection, which is deeply rooted in the religious, political, social, and legal culture of the early Middle Ages. Traversing many geo-political boundaries and fields of historical specialisation, this book evaluates the nature and extent of papal involvement in French monasteries between the sixth and eleventh centuries. Defining the meaning and value of exemption to medieval contemporaries during this era, it demonstrates how the papacy’s commitment, cooperation, and intervention transformed existing ecclesiastical and political structures. Charting the elaboration of monastic exemption privileges from a marginalised to centralised practice, this book asks why so many French monasteries were seeking exemption privileges directly from Rome; what significance they held for monks, bishops, secular rulers, and popes; how and why this practice developed throughout the early Middle Ages; and, ultimately, what impact monastic exemption had on the emerging identity of papal authority, the growth of early monasticism, Frankish politics and governance, church reform, and canon law.

Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

Charles West

Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims wrote voluminously about the parish and its priest during his long episcopacy (845–82). Author of a treatise dedicated to the status of rural churches, the Collectio de ecclesiis et capellis , Hincmar also issued several sets of instructions traditionally labelled ‘episcopal capitularies’ or ‘statutes’ to rural priests in his diocese, became involved in fierce controversies over particular churches and touched on related issues in many other texts. His interest in the topic represents an important part of

in Hincmar of Rheims
Lester K. Little

that mystery led to the mystery of the tomb inside the church. The Annals of Piacenza , where this account of Alberto’s burial appeared, identified Alberto as a carrier not just of wine but of grain, too, calling him a ‘good, God-fearing man’ who was persistent in alms-giving and who made many pilgrimages to Rome. Should these details about how he lived and what he did be added to the bare-bones sketch of Alberto’s life? We cannot declare any of them impossible, but except for the assertion that he was a carrier of wine (his carrying of

in Indispensable immigrants
Abstract only
Dignity and memory
Lester K. Little

. At Reggio Emilia, the church of Saint-George, where the wine porters maintained an altar in honour of Saint Alberto, ceased to be a parish church and passed into the hands of the Jesuits in 1610. Forty years later they began construction on the same site of a much larger church. If there was an altar to Saint Alberto in the new church it would have gone out of use when the Jesuits were suppressed and the church secularised at the end of the eighteenth century. 19 That no one from there testified at the canonisation proceedings in the 1740s could signify, but

in Indispensable immigrants
Lester K. Little

. Miraculous elements dominate in the telling of Alberto’s death and burial in Cremona. As he lay on his deathbed awaiting the arrival of a priest, who after being summoned seemed to be taking an inordinately long time to arrive, a dove flew into the room where he lay and placed the communion wafer it carried in its beak upon his tongue (see Figure 7 ). Once Alberto was dead and his body was to be carried to the parish church of Saint-Mattia, all the church bells in the city started to ring at once, this without the intervention of any human bell-ringers. Thus a large crowd

in Indispensable immigrants
Abstract only
Lester K. Little

Alberto came from Villa d’Ogna, a village near the town of Clusone in the Serio River Valley, 33 km northeast of the city of Bergamo. He lived and worked as a wine porter in the city of Cremona. He died there in 1279 on 6 May, a Saturday to be precise, and was put to rest on the following day at the church of Saint-Mattia. 1 No other details of Alberto’s life survive. None whatever. The fact of his burial at Saint-Mattia indicates that Alberto had lived in that parish. Such an assumption would also be

in Indispensable immigrants
Lester K. Little

they could safely put forward as a model for lay believers to emulate. 5 In this the first canonisation bull of his pontificate, Innocent spelled out for the people and clergy of Cremona his understanding of the requirements for sainthood: ‘two things, namely the virtue of life and the virtue of signs, that is, works of piety in life and miracles after death, are required for someone to be reputed a saint in the Church Militant’. His reason that miracles during one’s life are not valid indicators is that the devil can deceive people by

in Indispensable immigrants