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Ian Wood

5 Reform and the Merovingian Church Ian Wood The Carolingian Church has long been recognised as marking a highpoint in the religious history of the early Middle Ages, though our understanding of that Church has been radically and sympathetically transformed in recent years by a remarkable generation of (predominantly female) scholars, and not least by Mayke de Jong.1 By contrast, the Merovingian Church has been rather less sympathetically treated. The standard picture is that from the end of the sixth century it was an institution that was in need of reform

in Religious Franks
Kathleen G. Cushing

A ROUND the year 1000, the Latin Church in many ways defined western Europe. Through a string of chapels, churches, monasteries and clergy extending from Ireland into eastern Europe and beyond the Elbe and Saale Rivers, from the Scandinavian countries to the northern Iberian peninsula, and especially in the European heartlands of Italy, France and the German Empire, the Latin Church was beginning physically to dominate the landscape of western Europe. It also began the immense task of trying to reshape the thought patterns of its many peoples. Led by the

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Monastic exemption in France, c. 590– c. 1100

This book examines the history of monastic exemption in France. It maps an institutional story of monastic freedom and protection, which is deeply rooted in the religious, political, social, and legal culture of the early Middle Ages. Traversing many geo-political boundaries and fields of historical specialisation, this book evaluates the nature and extent of papal involvement in French monasteries between the sixth and eleventh centuries. Defining the meaning and value of exemption to medieval contemporaries during this era, it demonstrates how the papacy’s commitment, cooperation, and intervention transformed existing ecclesiastical and political structures. Charting the elaboration of monastic exemption privileges from a marginalised to centralised practice, this book asks why so many French monasteries were seeking exemption privileges directly from Rome; what significance they held for monks, bishops, secular rulers, and popes; how and why this practice developed throughout the early Middle Ages; and, ultimately, what impact monastic exemption had on the emerging identity of papal authority, the growth of early monasticism, Frankish politics and governance, church reform, and canon law.

Charles West

Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims wrote voluminously about the parish and its priest during his long episcopacy (845–82). Author of a treatise dedicated to the status of rural churches, the Collectio de ecclesiis et capellis , Hincmar also issued several sets of instructions traditionally labelled ‘episcopal capitularies’ or ‘statutes’ to rural priests in his diocese, became involved in fierce controversies over particular churches and touched on related issues in many other texts. His interest in the topic represents an important part of

in Hincmar of Rheims
Religious culture and civic life in medieval northern Italy

Most people would agree that the hospital functions as one of the 'first duties of an organized society' as a public service for those members of the community who are in need. In the thirteenth century, hospitals represented a nexus of exchange between church officials, the community, the needy, and the pious or ambitious individual. This book presents a survey that offers an overview of the role of the hospital in affairs of the urban community, suggesting how changes within that community were reflected in the activities of the hospital. It locates the rise of the hospital movement in northern Italy within the context of the changing religious, social, and political environment of the city-states. The book introduces the hospital's central function in the distribution and administration of charity. It illustrates how the hospital and other charitable organizations played a role in the appropriation of power and influence by urban citizens. A comprehensive investigation of twelfth and thirteenth century hospitals' foundational charters follows. The book then delves into a detailed description of the physical plant of the hospital, the daily life of individuals, and rules and statutes followed by its members. It considers the social composition of donors, workers, and recipients of hospital services. Jurisdictional disputes among the city leaders, the community, individual religious orders, ecclesiastical authorities, and larger political forces. Finally, the book explores the process of consolidation and bureaucratization of hospitals in the fifteenth century and the emergence of state control over social services.

Simon Corcoran

: The Theodosian Code, the post-Theodosian Novels and the Sententiae of Paulus, mostly in versions that can be attributed to the Breviary of Alaric or its epitomes; plus the Sirmondians. The Epitome of Julian, containing summaries of the Novels of Justinian. The Lex Dei or Mosaicarum et romanarum legum collatio (‘Comparison of Mosaic and Roman Laws’) ( LD ). 16 Roman law texts such as the Gregorian or Justinian Codes ( CJ ), cited because embedded in the Church Fathers (Augustine

in Hincmar of Rheims
Abstract only
Life and work
Editors: Rachel Stone and Charles West

Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims (d. 882) is a crucial figure for all those interested in early medieval European history in general, and Carolingian history in particular. As the powerful Archbishop of Rheims, Hincmar shaped the times in which he lived, advising and admonishing kings, playing a leading role in the Frankish church, and intervening in a range of political and doctrinal disputes. But Hincmar also shaped how those times would later be seen by historians up to the present day, by writing historical accounts such as the Annals of St-Bertin, and by carefully preserving dossiers of material for posterity.

This book puts the archbishop himself centre-stage, bringing together the latest international research across the spectrum of his varied activities, as history-writer, estate administrator, hagiographer, pastorally-engaged bishop, and politically-minded royal advisor. For the first time since Jean Devisse’s magisterial studies in the 1970s, it offers a three-dimensional examination of a controversial figure whose actions and writings in different fields are often studied in isolation, at the cost of a more integrated appreciation. Combining research from recognised experts as well as early-career historians, it will be an essential companion for all those interested in the early medieval Frankish world, and in the history of early medieval Europe more broadly.

Janet L. Nelson

Bernard and his men. 15 The capitula of Toulouse show that the oppressors also included bishops, and those who complained about them were the priests of ‘little churches’ ( ecclesiolae ). The author of the preamble, writing in the king’s name, tried to keep a balance between the necessitates (needs) of bishops and the possibilitates (resources, means) of priests; but the responses in the capitula sketched a long history of abuses of power. My suggestion is that Hincmar was the author, and that his sympathies were with the priests. On 12

in Hincmar of Rheims
Hincmar and Lothar I
Elina Screen

adopted a ‘with me or against me’ approach to the elite, complicating a rapprochement for Hincmar. 19 Nevertheless, the events of 844–45 suggest that Lothar was not completely ill-disposed to Hincmar at the outset. In 844 Lothar had supported the Council of Yütz, which expressed concern at the ravages caused to the Church by the civil war, and the second chapter of the council’s acts had recommended that episcopal vacancies should be ended. 20 The fact that Lothar, who at the start of 844 still strongly supported Ebbo’s claims for

in Hincmar of Rheims
Abstract only
Hincmar’s world
Rachel Stone

Life and times When Flodoard, a canon of Rheims cathedral, came to write his history of the church of Rheims in the mid-tenth century, he had no doubt about the dominant figure in the see’s story. It is not the numerous saintly bishops of Late Antiquity who take up most of the Historia Remensis ecclesiae , but a far less holy and more controversial figure: Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims between 845 and 882. 1 Hincmar’s predominance is partly due to the large quantity of information about him that Flodoard had access to, above all Hincmar’s numerous letters

in Hincmar of Rheims