of the voluntary sector. The call for ‘Active Citizenship’ encouraged volunteers to make up for the shortfall in social services. By the 1980s, some constituents of the voluntary sector were partnering with state and local authorities for funding. 52
Just as the voluntary sector was altered by a new post-war social world, women religious also engaged with or became a part of this revivified voluntary sector. New ministries in the 1970s and 1980s took many forms – individual ministries, parish communities, inserted communities and international missions. Some
the language of citizenship, rather than feminism. On some political issues, they worked side by side with explicitly feminist organisations. She argues that the ‘women’s movement’, as an umbrella term that highlights those who wanted to improve the position and status of women in society, needs to be delinked from an exclusively feminist agenda. 7 Taking us into the 1960s, Callum Brown has persistently argued that the social movements of the long 1960s, especially the women’s movement, was deeply implicated in the decline of religious affiliation of young women
: Citizenship, Opportunism, and Subversion ( London : Palgrave Macmillan , 2017 ), pp. 155 – 78 ; McKenna, Made Holy.
68 Enda Delaney , ‘ The Vanishing Irish? The Exodus from Ireland in the 1950s ’, in Dermot Keogh , Finbarr O’Shea and Carmel Quinlan (eds), The Lost Decade: Ireland in the 1950s ( Cork : Mercier , 2004 ), pp. 82 – 3 ; Caitriona Clear , ‘ “Too Fond of Going”: Female Emigration and Change for Women in Ireland, 1946–1961 ’, in Dermot Keogh , Finbarr O’Shea and Carmel Quinlan (eds), The Lost Decade: Ireland in the 1950s
: Oxford University Press , 2007 ).
8 Arthur Marwick , ‘ The Cultural Revolution of the Long Sixties: Voices of Reaction, Protest, and Permeation ’, International History Review , 27 ( 2005 ), 782.
9 Myra Marx Ferree and Carol McClurg Mueller , ‘ Feminism and the Women’s Movement: A Global Perspective ’, in David A. Snow , Sarah A. Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi (eds), The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements ( Chichester : John Wiley & Sons , 2008 ), p. 576.
10 Massimo Faggioli , Catholicism and Citizenship: Political Cultures of