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When physicians gathered in medical societies to present, share, discuss, evaluate, publish and even celebrate their medical studies, they engaged in a community with specific practices, rules and manners. This book explores the formal and subtle ways in which such norms were set. It analyzes societies’ scientific publishing procedures, traditions of debate, (inter)national networks, and social and commemorative activities, uncovering a rich scientific culture in nineteenth-century medicine. The book focuses on medical societies in Belgium, a young nation-state eager to take its place among the European nations, in which the constitutional freedoms of press and association offered new possibilities for organized sociability. It situates medical societies within an emerging civil culture in Ghent, Brussels and Antwerp, and shows how physicians’ ambitions to publish medical journals and organize scientific debates corresponded well to the values of social engagement, polite debate and a free press of the urban bourgeoisie. As such, this book offers new insights into the close relation between science, sociability and citizenship. The development of a professional academic community in the second half of the century, which centered around the laboratory, went hand in hand with a set of new scientific codes, mirroring to a lesser extent the customs of civil society. It meant the end of a tradition of ‘civil’ science, forcing medical societies to reposition themselves in the scientific landscape, and take up new functions as mediators between specialties and as centers of postgraduate education.

The dead body, the individual and the limits of medicine

subjectivity, and a particular political ideology, a particular way of thinking about politics’, was at the heart of Foucault’s research. Presumed consent, ownership of the body and biological citizenship Concerns about the implications of thinking about the body as private property motivate Anne Phillips’s (2013) contribution to debates about organ donation. For her, when we think about the body as our property ‘we minimise the significance of our bodies to our sense of self and encourage a mind/body dualism that makes it easier to think of bodies as marketable resources

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland

these practitioners to reach different audiences. Their medical colleagues regarded them as testimonies of professional engagement, 172 Medical societies and scientific culture since they testified to the social usefulness of medicine, increasing the status of the profession. To the urban public and state officials, vaccination campaigns were mostly acts of citizenship, which augmented the social status of their initiators in the urban community. This rationale of philanthropy and civic engagement was continued well into the midnineteenth century. Reformers such

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium

This chapter challenges the view that all French, Tuscan and British treatises advocating moral treatment for the insane written between 1750 and 1840 recommended patient work. While most early authors recommended bodily exercise, in line with the six non-naturals, this tended to be some sort of sport or physical activity, rather than actual work. The chapter maintains that advocacy of therapeutic work emerged in different territories at different times during the period and links its manifestation to socio-economic, political and cultural factors, such as the level of industrialisation, religious considerations, and evolving attitudes towards class, citizenship and productivity. The chapter also examines the association between recommendations for patient work and the author’s preference for establishing self-control in the patient, over external methods of controlling behaviour.

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
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, were the exponents of a ‘civil’ form of science. Their embeddedness in civil society was most clear in the early and mid-nineteenth century, when efforts to make medicine scientific were seen, above all, as a voluntary, ‘engaged’ campaign that corresponded to physicians’ display of citizenship. In that sense, they seem comparable to contemporary natural history societies, whose civil grounding has equally attracted attention.1 From roughly the 1860s onwards, voluntary scientific practice was gradually replaced by professionalized research. The formation of a new

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
Teaching medical history to medical students

concept rhetorically separates insiders (belonging to the audience) from outsiders (belonging to ‘the crowd’). For example, in nineteenth-century European liberalism, citizenship could be characterized as a right of the white bourgeois male, while all of the others (workers, women, non-whites) belonged to ‘the crowd’. 3 Citizenship was considered a privilege of the qualified: whoever had a certain level of wealth and

in Communicating the history of medicine
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between science, sociability and citizenship.10 One of the claims of this book is that the urban medical society formed the most-suited institutional model for early and mid-nineteenth-century physicians – more than the university or national academy – to establish a scientific community that reflected their shared civil values. The scientific culture that emerged through the efforts of medical societies was, to a large extent, a ‘civil’ culture. This intertwinement of science and civil society will be traced on the level of scientific practices and ideals. For the

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
A governmental analysis

through which citizen subjectivities come to be constructed in the management of populations, and to explore how power relations subtly produce subjects within society. In particular, Cruikshank’s (1999) central concept of technologies of citizenship describes a phenomenon whereby discourses and programmes aim at improving self-esteem and empowering people to further their own ends, but always within the context of the market economy. Such strategies 228 Governing neoliberal healthcare agendas are often subtle and seek to maximise the subjectivities of those

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
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The ‘pathology’ of childhood in late nineteenth-century London

vulnerable and in need of amelioration in this nascent ‘modern’ ideal, Harry Hendrick notes that the child victim was ‘nearly always seen as harbouring the possibility of another condition, one that was sensed to be threatening: to moral fibre, sexual propriety, the sanctity of the family, the preservation of the race, law and order, and the wider reaches of citizenship’. 11 In essence childhood was a battleground where the future success of the ‘modern’ state would be decided. This chapter focuses on

in Progress and pathology
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Leprosy and colonialism Whereas Foucault had seen medieval leprosy colonies as an example of sovereign power, exile, and the enclosure of an abandoned marginalized group, these historians suggested that the modern leprosy asylums could be seen as an example of disciplinary power in which modern notions of citizenship were applied and patients were held under constant surveillance.39 More recently, Jo Robertson, Jane Buckingham, and Kerri Ingliss have advocated a more nuanced approach, showing the variations, complexities, and contingencies in leprosy asylums, and

in Leprosy and colonialism