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C. E. Beneš

Part eight offers three chapters of advice for good citizenship: citizens ought to be thoughtful and mature in making decisions; they ought to be virtuous rather than slaves to vice; and they ought to have the greatest zeal for the commonwealth.

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
Editor: C. E. Beneš

This book provides the first English translation of the Chronicle of the city of Genoa by the thirteenth-century Dominican Jacopo da Varagine (also known as Jacobus de Voragine). While Jacopo is better known for his monumental compilation of saints’ lives, the Golden legend, his lesser known Chronicle of Genoa exemplifies the important medieval genre of the civic chronicle. The work mixes scholarly research about the city’s origins with narrative accounts based on Genoese archival sources, more didactic and moral reflections on the proper conduct of public and private life, and personal accounts of Jacopo’s own experience as archbishop of Genoa from 1292 until his death in 1298. Divided into twelve parts, the work covers the history of Genoa from its ancient origins up to Jacopo’s own day. Jacopo’s first-hand accounts of events in which he himself participated—such as the great civic reconciliation of 1295, over which he himself presided—provide a valuable contrast to the more scholarly and didactic sections of the work. Together they form an integrated, coherent approach to urban history, which illustrates some of the most important styles of historiography in the Middle Ages.

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C. E. Beneš

walls—fostered the development among these cities’ inhabitants of a particularly urban group identity or civic consciousness: a sense of collective identity focused on citizenship in, or at least belonging to, the urban community; a sense of ownership pertaining to the city, including its physical space and monuments; and a sense of the importance of one's own city on the broader stage of human history. 15

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
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this group became freemen in late fourteenth-century York [ 19 ]; only between a fifth and a third in the case of Exeter. 6 The admission of individuals to the freedom, or full citizenship, was influenced by the fiscal policies of town councils which collected fees from those admitted. The pattern in detail therefore varied between towns and over time, making it difficult or impossible to perceive general trends

in Towns in medieval England
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[ 94 ], [ 95 ] – were schools of citizenship. Without idealising their goals, it is reasonable to suggest that these urban charities helped to cultivate in their participants a sense of moral responsibility for the larger body of the townspeople. 79 While there were certainly different degrees of vulnerability, it is important to realise the extent to which everyone living in medieval towns was at risk

in Towns in medieval England
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and the limitation of distractions for courtiers and soldiers: hence the curious pairing in the ordinances of pigs and prostitutes. Registers of admissions to the freedom (or citizenship) of a town can also beguile us, if we do not question the motives of their compilers. The York freemen’s register [ 19 ] ostensibly gives, year by year, a statistical account of the presence and relative importance of the

in Towns in medieval England

petition does it specify the consequences of the failed revolt of the Eight of Santa Maria Novella at the end of August – the outlawing of the third revolutionary guild, that was variously called of the carders, the Ciompi, or Popolo di Dio , and their prohibition to join any other guild or have guild or citizenship recognition. On behalf of the councillors of the two newly created guilds described below

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries

bathhouse. In a narrower sense, the cahal was the council of elders and rabbis, who provided administration and justice. They ran their own courts, they apportioned the state poll-tax and levied their own dues and taxes. They decided whether or not to confer the chazaka , citizenship, on newcomers, essential if they were to be accepted into the community

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
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creditors can likewise provide some information on the level of female involvement in trade in addition to providing names of women traders. 55 Women’s entry into employment was constrained by their limited access to training, wealth, or citizenship in its widest sense. Few women served apprenticeships, the extended term of recognised training that could act as a stepping stone to

in Women in England c. 1275–1525

wool industry, leather manufacturing, and hardware gained guild recognition and thereby citizenship and the right to elect the highest officers of the state, the priors. It was harbinger of the changes to come twenty-three years later in Florence as a consequence of the Revolt of the Ciompi. In addition, the upper-class guild of bankers, the principal profession of the previous members of the Nine, was

in Popular protest in late-medieval Europe