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Jonathan Pattenden

2 A class-relational approach Society does not consist of individuals, but expresses the sum of interrelations. (Marx 1973:265) While capitalism presupposes a structural opposition between capital and labour that is rooted in ownership of productive assets and acted out through the performance of surplus labour and its attendant forms of domination, actually existing class relationships are ‘almost infinitely more complicated’ (Harriss 2006:446). When viewed in concrete historical terms, class is a plural category in terms of its subdivisions (shaped by the

in Labour, state and society in rural India
Matthew Kidd

The refusal of the Labour Party to recognise the class war disappointed those who believed society was divided into two irreconcilable classes. 1 If this refusal represented a true reflection of Labour opinion rather than a strategic attempt to maintain unity between diverse political and trade union forces, then one may be inclined to conclude that populist understandings of the social order were more prevalent than class-based perspectives in the early party. This argument has been put forward by an eclectic range of scholars who have drawn attention to the

in The renewal of radicalism
Matthew Kidd

broad cross-class coalition whose members worked in relative harmony under the guiding influence of ‘the People’s William’. For proponents of a class-based model of political development, radicals and liberals grew close in the years following the defeat of the ‘class-conscious’ Chartist movement, when the working classes, driven above all by economic concerns, abandoned their commitment to independent class politics and accepted the political and intellectual leadership of middle-class reformers. 2 This once-dominant narrative has been challenged by scholars who

in The renewal of radicalism
The milieu culture of DIY punk
Peter Webb

5 Crass, subculture and class: the milieu culture of DIY punk Peter Webb This chapter presents an account of the activities and social formation of the DIY punk band Crass in order to develop a critique of the notion of ‘subculture’ employed at the time of the group’s existence (1977–85) by the Birmingham University Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS). It supplies a narrative of how the band and the cultural movement known as `anarchopunk’ provided a ‘milieu’ where class identities could blend and develop hybrid forms of cultural and social capital.1

in Fight back
Political apathy and the poetry of Derek Mahon
George Legg

2 ‘Middle-­class shits’: political apathy and the poetry of Derek Mahon ‘Wonders are many and none is more wonderful than man’ Who has tamed the terrier, trimmed the hedge And grasped the principle of the watering can. Clothes pegs litter the window ledge And the long ships lie in clover; washing lines Shake out white linen over the chalk thanes. Now we are safe from monsters, and the giants Who tore up sods twelve miles by six And hurled them out to sea to become islands Can worry us no more. The sticks And stones that once broke bones will not now harm A

in Northern Ireland and the politics of boredom
Open Access (free)
Steven Fielding

4 Reconciling the classes Many contemporaries were convinced that by the 1960s class barriers had been at least attenuated compared with the 1930s. The children of manual workers were believed to be better able to enter the middle class; and it was thought that many of those remaining on the factory floor were adopting bourgeois ways. Labour members appeared more divided over this issue than they actually were. While the left considered ‘affluence’ made only a modest impact on the social structure and revisionists thought its influence profound, few denied

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
Jonathan Pattenden

6 Social policy and class relations: the case of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) is a universal rights-based programme, and as such it is argued here that it provides possibilities for classes of labour to challenge existing distributions of power within local government institutions (LGIs), and even to modify class relations in their favour. In operation since 2006, NREGS guarantees 100 days of employment on government-funded works for every household in rural India. It also entitles those

in Labour, state and society in rural India
Brian Elliott

The preceding chapter offered an initial analysis of populism as something not only consistent with but intrinsic to democratic culture. As I will argue in this chapter, the origins of democratic political culture reside in protracted working-class struggle in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The conception of class adopted here will be a relational one. As Ellen Meiksins Wood ( 2016 ) notes, there are, broadly speaking, two paradigms of analysis, according to which class is considered ‘as a structural location or as a social relation ’ ( 2016

in The roots of populism
Jonathan Pattenden

8 Organisations of labouring class women In contrast to the neoliberal civil society organisations (CSOs) of the previous chapter, the focus here is on an organisation of labouring class scheduled caste female agricultural labourers in the fieldwork district of Raichur (Karnataka). The organisation, the Jagruthi Mahela Sanghathan (JMS), is made up of around 550 labouring class  Madiga (scheduled caste) female labourers organised in thirty-five village-level associations (sanghas) in twenty-two villages across two sub-districts (Manvi and Sindhanur). The chapter

in Labour, state and society in rural India
From workers’ resistance in the 1990s to the post-2017 uprisings
Kayhan Valadbaygi

In the previous two chapters, we explored the reconfiguration of the Iranian ruling class and the reorganisation of the Iranian state since the early 1990s. In this chapter, we aim to examine the ways in which neoliberal reforms have reconstituted and transformed the working class and the poor. More importantly, we are eager to find out how the process of neoliberalisation

in Capitalism in contemporary Iran