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Abstract only
Wendy R. Childs
and
Phillipp R. Schofield

any liking, they made him their oath that they would help him faithfully to fulfil all the things aforesaid. But after all these things had been made known for certain to the king and kingdom of England, the poor folk, middle class and farmers in the northern parts were not a little delighted that the king of Scotland should freely possess his own kingdom on such terms that they themselves might live in peace. But the

in The reign of Edward II, 1307–27
Abstract only
E.A. Jones

some idea of how the problem was (at least partly) resolved. The sources collected in this book fall in general into two classes. Either they are concerned with individual hermits or anchorites in their particular circumstances, or they come from theoretical or prescriptive texts such as rules or liturgy whose relation to the lived experience of real solitaries it is usually impossible to recover. 13

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
Abstract only
C. E. Beneš

chronicles The demographic landscape of medieval Italy ( fig. 2 ) differed from most of the rest of Europe in its relatively high percentage of urban-dwellers, even after the end of the Roman Empire. Economic growth, especially from trade, from the eleventh century on expanded the urban middle classes, while the decline of imperial authority in Italy at the end of the eleventh century made room for the rise of communes: citizen

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa
Abstract only
Gervase Rosser

time be compelled to yield it back to the giver. The county towns, as an elite class of regional centres which was largely defined by about 1100, would always be seen from the point of view of royal government as means for the expression and assertion of central authority. 1 Meanwhile, a second and no less significant basis of urban rule lay in customary practices of self-regulation in the neighbourhoods which made up the town

in Towns in medieval England
Abstract only
Alison I. Beach
,
Shannon M.T. Li
, and
Samuel S. Sutherland

families have gone largely unnoticed. Here we meet the ministerials, men of the lower nobility, a knightly class of mostly unfree origins. Although technically servile, ministerials at this time held an important place as the upper knightly class. In a complex evolution spanning particularly the tenth through the thirteenth centuries, ministerials in southern Germany largely displaced the lower nobility before being subsumed in turn into the increasingly privileged class of knights, which was also of mostly servile origin. 55 The majority of the lay population of

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany
Abstract only
Gervase Rosser

to the sixteenth centuries – England was already urbanised, in the sense that the presence of towns was felt in all parts of the country, and touched every aspect of life. As a result, the traces of medieval urban experience are to be found in a great variety of historical sources. Each one of these classes of evidence presents its own particular problems of interpretation, which are highlighted in the

in Towns in medieval England
Abstract only
Gervase Rosser

trappings of a gentleman but as a merchant [ 37 ]. 2 None the less, the merchant of the town shared a certain class interest with the country landowner. This said, the social experience of the town differed from that of its rural surroundings by virtue of its concentrated diversity and its fluidity. Both before and after the plague, urban populations depended, in order to remain buoyant, upon a

in Towns in medieval England
Gervase Rosser

personal privacy denied to humbler classes [ 64 ], [ 65 ]. 7 The question of the quality of life in this context calls for careful assessment. It is evident that some townspeople lived not only prosperously but well. At the same time, contemporaries were aware that money was not everything, and the view is recorded that even the rich could suffer in human and spiritual ways for

in Towns in medieval England
Gervase Rosser

concentrated form a more widely encountered tendency of young men in towns to congregate socially, to drink, and on occasion to prove their developing masculinity in acts of collective violence. 7 The secular population was itself, of course, divided by wealth, status and influence. Class also can be seen as a contributor to social conflict in the town. The large proportion of urban

in Towns in medieval England
Abstract only
Gervase Rosser

larger class of associations with less socially elevated memberships and whose solidarity was expressed on a more modest scale [ 93 ]. The relatively small contributions required by the majority of such institutions were within the financial reach of artisans and shopkeepers, and these – both men and women – comprised the greatest proportion of the memberships. Many guilds, however, attracted a social

in Towns in medieval England