the late Romantic style, reinforced the connection’ between films and
romantic music; whether using pre-existing orchestral arrangements or
relying on composers of the day to write new symphonic pieces for films,
classicalHollywoodcinema ‘adapted the late-romantic orchestra of
ninety-plus players for the recording studio’. 12 Not only did
romantic music rely on a large orchestra, its emotional qualities and
structures of classicalHollywoodcinema have gradually given way to a hybridity characteristic of modern (and especially postmodern) film. This is partly a consequence of genres evolving in a way that follows and reflects on the socio-cultural reality of their periods of creation; partly a general tendency of the entertainment industry to keep offering novelties to its consumers. Genres’ reflection on their socio-historical context can be diverse: teen films need to be able to speak the language of the contemporary young generation to attract their attention; zombies and
(ed.), The Vikings on Film: Essays on Depictions of the Nordic Middle Ages (Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2011), pp. 193–214 (210–11). More recent discussions of the film can be found in Arne Lunde, Nordic Exposures: Scandinavian Identities in ClassicalHollywoodCinema (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010), pp. 17–26; and in Jón Karl Helgason, Echoes of Valhalla: The Afterlife of the Eddas and Sagas , trans. Jane Victoria Appleton (London: Reaktion Books, 2017), pp. 163–71.
3 See H. T. Kalmus, ‘ Technicolor adventures in Cinemaland ’, Journal of
looked at; a kind of fictional anticipation of the shot/reverse shot
of classicalHollywoodcinema, in fact. The sort of contemplative
absorption embodied by the aesthete Wotton is possible the morning
after, as Gray gazes at the portrait ‘with a feeling of
almost scientific interest’ (Wilde, 2003 : 93). But it is provisional. His
detachment collapses with the thought that the picture has
(Patricia Hodge) arrives in her white Rolls Royce clad in a gleaming evening dress which clings to her feminine figure, displaying a fragile and glamorous beauty which evokes the ‘perfect product’ – the immaculately groomed stars of classicalHollywoodcinema. It is not until Mary and Bobbo are locked in a lover-like conversation that we are introduced to Ruth (Julie T. Wallace), who, as Bobbo’s conscientious wife, is offering drinks around. She towers over them – her height exaggerated because she is standing and they are sitting on a low settee. Dressed frumpily in a
are faced with
the intersection of cinema, stage and television, an intermedial reflection with carnavalesque overtones that re-examines the relationship
between Shakespeare and Hollywood, as Carter explains in a 1988
review of The ClassicalHollywoodCinema: ‘Hollywood was, still is,
always will be, synonymous with the movies. It was the place where the
United States perpetrated itself as a universal dream and put the dream
into mass production’ (Carter, 1997b: 385). Hollywood was a place
where ‘scandal and glamour’ were ‘an essential part of the product’
). Vulnerability and Human Rights. University Park: Pennsylvania
State University Press.
Tyler, I. (2013). Revolting Subjects: Social Abjection and Resistance in Neoliberal
Britain. London and New York: Zed Books.
Vaittinen, T. (2015). ‘The power of the vulnerable body’, International Journal of
Politics, 17:1, pp. 100–18.
White, P. (1999). Uninvited: ClassicalHollywoodCinema and Lesbian
Representability. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Wiegman, R. (2014). ‘The times we’re in: Queer feminist criticism and the reparative
“turn” ’, Feminist Theory, 15:1, pp. 4
The western, while its position as the most prototypical genre of classicalHollywoodcinema is unquestioned, may still appear somewhat unusual, or at first sight rather untypical, as a Shakespearean genre; but, as this chapter illustrates, there are ample examples of films that include a recognisable Shakespearean element within their western narratives. Although hints and reminders of the iconography of the western have always been frequent in Hollywood cinema, it is not isolated images of cinematic self-referentiality that I wish to discuss here, such as the
protagonist of A Double Life clearly displays signs of such a personal crisis, particularly through his dysfunctional family life: however attractive he may appear to women, including Brita, he is unable to perform successfully the role of responsible family man that is required of a positive hero in the idealised world of classicalHollywoodcinema. 22
Unlike in Men Are Not Gods , A Double Life features a Iago character as well, who betrays Tony by notifying the police of his suspicion of the great actor and in this way brings about his downfall. This is Bill