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Tower houses and waterways
Victoria L. McAlister

Tower houses created and sustained diverse economic networks. In particular, this was accomplished through siting on communication routes, especially water based, and interaction with transport networks. A significant proportion of transport and communication occurred via water in later medieval Ireland. Not only was this cheaper than land-based transport, but it helped navigate politically unstable territories, since protection and effort could focus on specific places. It was also a response to Ireland's topography, which in many

in The Irish tower house
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Problems of definition and historiography
Irina Metzler

over successive editions has become a standard reference for clinical practice in the mental health field. This ‘bible’ of modern psychiatry classifies cognitive disorders according to neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive disorders. Neurodevelopmental disorders cover broadly what tend to be called IDs, as well as communication, autism spectrum, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and motor disorders, plus the very modern educationalists’ concept of specific learning disorders relating to reading, writing and mathematics. For the sake of argument, my study focuses on

in Fools and idiots?
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Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

, under Henry IV and Henry V, it was also manifested in the self-conscious rejection of French and the adoption of Middle English as a language of authentic communication between the king and his subjects. 6 Another very important element of the new Englishness was an emphasis on independence and self-determination, captured in the concept of sovereignty, which entered English political rhetoric from the time of Edward I. The idea was used across the period to argue both for the territorial integrity of English dependencies (especially Gascony) and for English immunity

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Natural science and intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

the essential sense for learning, as Bartholomaeus says, since according to Aristotle ‘þe lyme of herynge is ful of kynde spirit, for as þe kynde spirit makeþ þe meuynge of puls in þe veynes, so he makeþ in þe eere þe vertu of heringe; and þat þerfore men lerneþ by þe wit of heringe’. 4 Thus congenital hearing loss would have entailed functional loss of communication, and with that the perception of someone with the sensory disability of deafness as also being intellectually disabled. There were a few dissenting voices. On the confusion between congenital deafness

in Fools and idiots?
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The case of Hincmar of Laon in the Annals of St-Bertin
Christine Kleinjung

-Bertin after the end of the story. This is evidence for Hincmar’s different ways of writing his annals. 51 Perhaps this was in order to show that he, Hincmar of Rheims, had pursued the same aim right from the outset: the defence of episcopal auctoritas and metropolitan authority which must be protected against the king and laity, but also against abuse by office holders. And he tried to secure his own position as important adviser to the king. His annals are a medium of communication to convey this message. There is

in Hincmar of Rheims
Hincmar in the crisis of 875
Clémentine Bernard-Valette

examples of Ambrose and Martin. Like Ambrose, Martin stayed in his city and faced the usurper Maximus. 40 Their examples are supported by two quotations from Augustine to show firstly that communication with a king without being contaminated by his sin is possible, and secondly that it is not his usurpation that is held against him, but the sacrileges of which it is the cause. 41 As the Carolingian Empire was Christian, there was little risk of bishops being prosecuted and led to martyrdom. As a consequence, Martin and Ambrose are more effective examples because they

in Hincmar of Rheims
Hincmar, the polyptych of St-Rémi and the slaves of Courtisols
Josiane Barbier

. New editions of polyptychs were produced, accompanying or leading to a renewal of research on Carolingian administration, communication and rural history. 2 The polyptych of St-Remi of Rheims did not escape this trend. Within a decade, a study by Britta Lützow (1979), a new edition by Jean-Pierre Devroey (1985) and a substantial article, co-written by François Dolbeau and Pierre Desportes (1986), transformed the understanding of this Carolingian monument, until then known largely though the edition of Benjamin Guérard (1853). 3 The

in Hincmar of Rheims
Marie-Céline Isaïa

those who attended the scene, then the extension of the work of Remigius by Hincmar, through other means of communication. This is a first response, very clear, to the question of the transmission of norms: as he explained, Hincmar hoped that the long-awaited hagiographical text would circulate throughout the province, be very widely read in public and be pondered in private, so becoming a very important medium for the dissemination of rules. It is because of the Vita ’s anticipated wide dissemination that Hincmar chose to mingle more theoretical lessons with the

in Hincmar of Rheims
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Thomas A. Prendergast and Stephanie Trigg

model of magical communication that already contains within it the probability that the person one is speaking to is the person to whom one wishes to speak. To be fair, Watson seems a bit discomfited by the full force of his mystical metaphor. He urges his readers to contribute hermeneutic suspicion where it is lacking and reminds us that it is impossible to have a completely empathetic connection with a past

in Affective medievalism
Colin Veach

needed powerful military men like Hugh de Lacy on the ground to sustain his authority. If Gerald is to be believed, Hugh appointed his own custodian of Leighlin Castle,26 thereby assuming military responsibility for much of colonial Ireland. Being employed thus by the king, Hugh used his office to extend his own influence. His town and castle of Drogheda guarded a bridge over the river Boyne, the main crossing from Dublin, through the northern kingdom of Airgialla, to the new Courcy lordship of Ulster. The security of Drogheda and communication with Ulster required

in Lordship in four realms