(PEN-LCRV) 1 was approved in 2015. It is currently in early implementation stages with most activity falling within the field of rhetoric and communication. Exploring the reasons behind the delay in implementation of this programme in comparison to neighbouring countries, and the strategy’s focus on ‘communicating’ as a priority, sheds light on specificities present in Spain and on global diffusion of CVE. Therein lie the reasons for policy paradigm transfer ( Rose, 2004 ) combined with policy learning, too ( Hall, 1993 ). In fact, changes in Spanish CT dating from
Recent years have seen the proliferation of discourses surrounding extremism and related terms. Encountering Extremism offers readers the opportunity to interrogate extremism through a plethora of theoretical perspectives, and to explore counter-extremism as it has materialised in plural local contexts. Through offering a critical interrogation along these two planes – the theoretical and the local – Encountering Extremism presents a unique, in-depth and critical analysis of a profoundly important subject. This book seeks to understand, and expose the implications of, a fundamental problematic: how should scholars and strategists alike understand the contemporary shift from counter-terrorism to counter-extremism? Starting with a genealogical reflection on the discourse and practices of extremism, the book brings together authors examining the topic of extremism, countering extremism and preventing extremism from different theoretical perspectives, such as critical terrorism studies, postcolonialism and gender studies. It then turns to analyses of the specific consequences of this new discourse in international and local contexts such as the United Nations, Nigeria, Tunisia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Spain.
be counted as counterevidence against the merit, desirability, or legitimacy of property laws. Crime, ineliminable though it is, is to the
normative foundations of property laws as background noise is to
communication –a nuisance to be duly taken into account and neutralized, but of no greater significance” (p. 118f.).
This remark reflects an approach to law (which Ferrara himself puts
under the label of “liberalism”: p. 118) that is unwilling or incapable of
taking seriously the question of its form. For Ferrara, to address law as
A critical examination of theoretical issues and local challenges
Alice Martini, Kieran Ford and Richard Jackson
specific relations of power.
In chapter ten , Laura Fernández de Mosteyrín focuses on how the global CVE paradigm is being transposed in the case of Spain. In ‘Communication as legitimation in Spanish CVE: bringing lessons from the past’, the author examines the communication of the CVE strategy, mainly in public events of dissemination. Tracing the origin of this practice from past counter-terrorism campaigns in the country, Fernández de Mosteyrín reflects on how past discourses create the basis for, but also shape, the reception of global discourses on CVE in local
exempt from communication in court, or more precisely what she claims she has the right
to exempt from communication in court, is at once what she is willing to disclose in a different communication in which the secrets withheld from law may be “confided.” This other, non-legal communication
commences immediately after the conclusion of the legal proceedings;
out of court, she may speak and say straightforwardly what she absolutely must withhold before court: “Judge Adam broke the jug” (The
Broken Jug, 63). So the point of Eve’s proclamation on having a right
law also affects the creation
of law and its decision-making practices. In his essay, Menke rightly
severs law from the relations of civic reciprocity and describes it as
one sphere of communication among others. He takes up Walter
Benjamin’s idea of a relief of law to stake out a position contrary to
Carl Schmitt’s suspension of law,33 a decisionistic model in which the
Postmodern legal theory as critical theory
political sovereign issues legal decisions ex nihilo and unencumbered by
any legal constraint. Using Heiner Müller’s play Volokolamsk Highway
themselves endowed with a special meaning. Ritual action is repetitive and, therefore, often redundant, but these very factors serve as an important means of channelling emotion, guiding cognition, and organizing social groups. (Kertzer 1989 , 9)
[Ritual includes] performance, formality, invariance, inclusion of both acts and utterances, encoding by other than the performers. (Rappaport 1999 , 24)
[Rituals] may use a delineated and structured space … a special periodicity … restricted codes of communication to heighten the formality of movement and speech; distinct
foundations of property laws as background noise is to communication –
a nuisance to be duly taken into account and neutralized, but of no
greater significance. Thus, from a historical point of view it seems to me
far from being established that there is a necessary relation between the
law and its violent imposition, let alone that there is any necessary relation between liberalism and such imposition. In particular, if we take
Menke’s essay as a reflection on law and violence intended to address
us, the contemporary citizens of a globalizing world, I find
Racialisation of countering violent extremism programming in the US
coordination. Many government and non-governmental organisations established different departments and programmes to counter extremism, leading to a lack of cohesion and communication. The 2011 Strategy was followed by the establishment of CVE units in the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Justice (DOJ) and related government departments. 7 In April 2015, the White House held a global summit to discuss causes of violent extremism and consider ways and means to counter it ( White House, 2015 ). Domestic CVE initiatives included a pilot
Extremism and the ‘politics of mutual envy’ in Nigeria?
identities: Between liberalism and totalization’, Nationalities Papers , 45 ( 1 ), 1–7 .
Malečková , J. , 2005 . Impoverished Terrorists: Stereotype or Reality , in Bjørgo , T (ed.), Root Causes of Terrorism Myths, Reality and Ways Forward . Routledge, London , pp. 33–43 .
Merskin , D. , 2004 . ‘The construction of Arabs as enemies: Post-September 11 discourse of George W. Bush’, Mass Communication & Society , 7 ( 2 ), 157–175 .
Nickels , H.C. , Thomas , L. , Hickman , M.J. and Silvestri , S. , 2012 . ‘Constructing “suspect” communities and