and one of his preferred techniques is to applaud his achievements in the third
person. In his Letter-Book Harvey uses initials and writes in the third
person to describe a ‘garden communication or dialogue in Cambridge
betweene Master G H and his cumpanye at a Midsummer Commencement’ (fol.
51b, p. 95). Harvey then switches to the first person and says the following:
‘I am so loth, my good masters, to depryve you of any thinge that I can
The printed verse miscellanies
In a way, Elizabethan poetry
began the year before the queen’s accession. Songes and
Sonettes (1557, and later editions; generally referred to as
Tottel’s Miscellany , or ‘Tottel’) had
opened a casement into the half-secret courtly chamber of coterie
communication for lyric by, especially, Wyatt and Surrey. The steady
Taking the measure of Antony and Cleopatra, Royal Shakespeare Company, 1972, 1978, 1982
Carol Chillington Rutter
That term is Coleridge's, from a lecture on Othello in 1819. See Coleridge 2004 , 231.
‘We were’, Suzman told me years later, ‘all meant to be black’, as is evident in the filmed version of the production shot in 1974 (personal communication, 2001).
Josette Bushell-Mingo’s Cleopatra, Royal Exchange, Manchester, 2005; Tarell Alvin McCraney’s ‘radical edit’, Royal Shakespeare Company, The Public and GableStage, 2013
Carol Chillington Rutter
/black. Look at our wrists. We have VISIBLE blue veins. If you aren't aware of this, maybe it's because you've gazed at black women without truly seeing them’ (personal communication, 14 January 2019). Shakespeare, I'd argue, was a man who did gaze at women's bodies and ‘truly’ saw them, to wit, observing the maternal detail (which any breastfeeding mother today could confirm) that the nursing baby frequently ‘sucks the nurse asleep’ (5.2.309). For the likelihood of Shakespeare encountering black women in London, see Miranda Kaufmann ( 2017
Foreign Antony and Cleopatra in Britain and abroad
Carol Chillington Rutter
far should one go out of love for democracy?
How far should one go out of love for one's values?
Based on how politicians have organised the world, do you know how to act?
Is everything communication?
All over the theatre spectators stood and read. Numbers of them held up mobile phones, capturing these rhetorical ‘credits’ in digital images
Designed as a direct communication to the reader, this final utterance confounds our understanding: ‘Let me arrest thy thoughts’. Donne’s ‘writ’ is more than direct or ‘sullen’; it is metaphysical and sublime. The word ‘sullen’ can mean ‘solemn, serious’ (Def. 2) but also ‘deep’ (Def. 3a). Donne’s writ is serious partly as a false scent, since humour plays a key role in the mockery; yet the writ is a mockery of depth – so mockingly deep it has long sustained speculation, from Allen to Elizabeth Harvey: 76 no one is sure how to
that is divided and compromised. But he also viewed him as a herald of the modern, forming part of a continuum interlinking Renaissance poetry, Romanticism, and modernism and guaranteeing a pathway to art forms that are shaped by organically sustaining primitive values and act as vehicles for otherworldly wisdom and communication.
In an early allusion to Spenser in a letter to the editor of The Bookman in November 1892, Yeats profiles him as a poet who managed to elude if not quite transcend the worst effects of his allegiance to
not so much on the production process itself as on the group of people who produced the manuscripts and their role within early modern society. Noting that the modern marginalisation of seventeenth-century scribes forms a stark contrast to the way their role was perceived by their contemporaries, Beal argues that it is necessary to recognise them as significant figures and as ‘key agents in the process of written communication and literary transmission’. 12
As well as leading to new models for the process of literary production that
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s
Richard James Wood
the queen’s moods or channels of communication … and as negotiators in marriage diplomacy’. 55 Lady Mary was one of this ‘group of female intimates’, though, apparently, excluded from an advisory role. On a notable occasion, Lady Mary was in touch with the Spanish ambassador responsible for Elizabeth’s marriage negotiations with Charles, Archduke of Austria, but the queen fell short of explicitly sanctioning her in this quasi-ambassadorial position. 56
I wish to suggest that in the revised Arcadia , more specifically in the captivity episode of Book III, Sidney
communication (spectral, musical, alchemical, topical). Other chapters turn to questions of performance of the supernatural, and contemporary adaptations. They explore the ways in which the discursive field of the supernatural has been appropriated for a range of contemporary agendas and interpretations in various stage productions and screen adaptations. The contemporary era has brought new technical possibilities to staging the supernatural, yet contemporary discourses, for example on gender, require new interpretations and shifts to the playtext. Modern interpretations