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Archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79

and curiosity. Such evidence for the popular appeal of archaeology in the United States during the decades following the American Civil War also exposes the chaotic state of ‘professional’ practice in that era. Diverse communities of interest flourished in the American hinterland. Antiquarian entrepreneurs amassed collections and dealt artifacts through extensive networks; local and regional societies pursued fieldwork, published reports, and promoted cultural achievement. Competition between these communities and networks was commonplace. In particular, structures

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The case of Oscar Montelius and Italy

struggles and competitions for influence following the recent unification of Italy in 1861. (Rome did not become the capital until 1870–71.) Here I will provide examples of Oscar Montelius’ contacts within the Italy-based scholastic community, focusing on the geographical areas Bologna/Emilia-Romagna and Rome, during the last decades of the nineteenth century. Despite the importance of Italy for Montelius’ work, little detailed examination has been made of his specific whereabouts and personal connections within this context. It soon becomes clear that an enterprise such

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
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subject to competitions by architects for the design of the buildings. This was common practice in civic architecture of the period. Architects’ designs were subject to scrutiny for effective use as lunatic asylums to be ideally operated under policies of moral management. In the instigation of a competition for the design of the Wakefield Asylum, the local magistrates had the competition advertised in regional and national newspapers, resulting in a variety of submissions ( Figure 4.1 ). As discussed previously, the magistrates called on known asylum reformer Samuel

in An archaeology of lunacy
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The Manchester Natural History Society

and street lighting are for their physical health and comfort’.54 Accordingly, when the Manchester naturalists began to struggle, they turned to the Corporation. The building had long been overcrowded; staffing was still inadequate. Members were dying off so subscriptions were down and attendance (and with it door income) was declining. The latter was exacerbated by competition from Salford’s free museum at Peel Park less than two miles away, which had opened in January 1850. The Society’s hopes were in vain. After four years, negotiations with the Corporation broke

in Nature and culture
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The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58

culminated in the Marshall Plan. In the archaeological community in Rome, this spirit of international collaboration had an especially profound impact upon the institutional framework of the foreign schools, the various academies and institutes of non-Italian academic communities that had been established in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries in the context of the nationalist competition over Rome and antiquity. Immediately after the end of the Second World War, two important organisations were created that instead focused deliberately on collaboration and

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
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Clusters of knowledge

Serbian archaeologists overcame epistemological limitations through informal communication and how this has shaped modern Serbian archaeological thought and practice. The following two chapters look at the connections and communications between collectors and institutions. Once again informal and fluid networks are the focus of Snead’s chapter as he discusses antiquarian communities in the United States during the nineteenth century, looking in particular at the cooperation and competition between antiquarian societies, individuals and the nascent national institutions

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology

, which takes the form of a stylised competition between male and female youths, will take the body to a burial mountain. This may be several miles away from the village. The coffin is placed into a small opening in the burial cave, which is then sealed with rocks. Following this first burial ceremony, there will be a gathering, a pre-planned event that occurs each year at the same season. The final re-burial ceremony in Bara culture can be delayed for a long time, but it must take place before all of the social obligations on the living can be discharged. For example

in Neolithic cave burials
From Samoa with Love? at the Museum Fünf Kontinente, Munich

shows toured Germany and Europe from 1895 to 1897,  1900 to 1901 and 1910 to 1911. This period covered the time of the tripartite government and the German colonial era in Western Samoa. In simplified terms,9 these years were characterised by three powers – the United States, Great Britain and Germany – competing for influence  over Samoa, which held true even after West Samoa became a German colony in 1900; while, on the Samoan side, the holders of the three highest titles and their followers were in competition with each other. In short, and again very simplified

in Curatopia
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler

/12/2019 08:56 142 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology built on more than he was willing to admit (Furtwängler, 1900: III, 402–34). Although in general this way of interacting seems to have been more complex than just simple acts of self-elevation and other-derogation, in the cases where competition could be found or expected, there is little doubt that Furtwängler frequently engaged in deliberately aggressive polemic: his books and review articles often contain excessively harsh judgements, personal attacks or unwarranted invectives. Savage comments like

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
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2006 : 90–1), reflected Johnston’s influences. Asylum buildings were to be regimented in plan, symmetrical and extending from a central point, but necessarily separated internally to ensure security. Johnston’s provincial asylum plans were an early example of an institutional building allowing for the complete separation of patients from the administration block (St Patrick’s Hospital Archive Plan: F/9). During the 1815 competition for the design of the Wakefield Asylum, the Visiting Magistrates rejected five designs in favour of the plan

in An archaeology of lunacy