concerns lay behind the establishment of a Royal Commission to consider
the interior decoration of the palace. The commission’s terms of
reference proclaim a broad programme for using the competitions to
‘facilitate the Promotion of the Fine Arts in this
Country’. 4 The
commissioners were for the most part connoisseurs and collectors,
‘art experts’ and painters. Their chairman was the new
Competition and exchange: exhibitors
and their networks
[H]ow is one to study nineteenth-and early twentieth-century stained glass by
remaining closed in one’s own country? Glass and stained glass windows were
exported and imported, large firms set up trading posts abroad and sent their representatives over there, glass makers moved around, models were circulated ….
The production of stained glass became internationalised and it is evident that
the more famous studios’ participation in the large international exhibitions
favoured this globalisation of
aristocratic; his great-grandfather, the Marquis Desanges, had settled
in England in 1742 as a political exile. The artist was willing, when it
seemed useful, to exploit his claim to the title chevalier .
Desanges was an aspirant History painter, competing unsuccessfully in
the Westminster Hall competition. He was also unsuccessful in getting
such works as his Excommunication of Robert, King
Windows for the world: nineteenth-century stained glass and the international exhibitions, 1851-1900 focuses on the display and reception of nineteenth-century stained glass in an international and secular context, by exploring the significance of the stained glass displayed at ten international exhibitions held in Britain, France, the USA and Australia between 1851 and 1900. International in scope, it is the first study to explore the global development of stained glass in this period, as showcased at, and influenced by, these international events. Drawing on hundreds of contemporaneous written and visual sources, it identifies the artists and makers who exhibited stained glass, as well as those who reviewed and judged the exhibits. It also provides close readings of specific stained glass exhibits in relation to stylistic developments, material and technological innovations, iconographic themes and visual ideologies. This monograph broadens approaches to post-medieval stained glass by placing stained glass in its wider cultural, political, economic and global contexts. It provides new perspectives and fresh interpretations of stained glass in these environments, through themed chapters, each of which highlight a different aspect of stained glass in the nineteenth century, including material taxonomies, modes of display, stylistic eclecticism, exhibitors’ international networks, production and consumption, nationalism and imperialism. As such, the book challenges many of the major methodological and historiographical assumptions and paradigms relating to the study of stained glass. Its scope and range will have wide appeal to those interested in the history of stained glass as well as nineteenth-century culture more broadly.
In an age when engraving and photography were making artistic images available to a much wider public, artists were able to influence public attitudes more powerfully than ever before. This book examines works of art on military themes in relation to ruling-class ideologies about the army, war and the empire. The first part of the book is devoted to a chronological survey of battle painting, integrated with a study of contemporary military and political history. The chapters link the debate over the status and importance of battle painting to contemporary debates over the role of the army and its function at home and abroad. The second part discusses the intersection of ideologies about the army and military art, but is concerned with an examination of genre representations of soldiers. Another important theme which runs through the book is the relation of English to French military art. During the first eighty years of the period under review France was the cynosure of military artists, the school against which British critics measured their own, and the place from which innovations were imported and modified. In every generation after Waterloo battle painters visited France and often trained there. The book shows that military art, or the 'absence' of it, was one of the ways in which nationalist commentators articulated Britain's moral superiority. The final theme which underlies much of the book is the shifts which took place in the perception of heroes and hero-worship.
This book offers a comprehensive reassessment of ekphrasis: the verbal representation of visual art. In the past twenty-five years numerous books and articles have appeared covering different aspects of ekphrasis, with scholars arguing that it is a fundamental means by which literary artists have explored the nature of aesthetic experience. However, many critics continue to rely upon the traditional conception of ekphrasis as a form of paragone (competition) between word and image. This interdisciplinary collection seeks to complicate this critical paradigm, and proposes a more reciprocal model of ekphrasis that involves an encounter or exchange between visual and textual cultures. This critical and theoretical shift demands a new form of ekphrastic poetics, which is less concerned with representational and institutional struggles, and more concerned with ideas of ethics, affect, and intersubjectivity. The book brings together leading scholars working in the fields of literary studies, art history, modern languages, and comparative literature, and offers a fresh exploration of ekphrastic texts from the Renaissance to the present day. The chapters in the book are critically and methodologically wide-ranging; yet they share an interest in challenging the paragonal model of ekphrasis that has been prevalent since the early 1990s, and establishing a new set of theoretical frameworks for exploring the ekphrastic encounter.
Photographs of games and competitions, traditional dances adapted to new purposes and the distinctive costumes of folk and ethnic ‘types’ at royal celebrations appeared frequently in the photographs of European elites throughout the Dutch colonial world.
In the Netherlands East Indies, such photographs attest to the labour migrations encouraged or coerced by Dutch colonial agriculture and industry. They depict the mixed and mobile Indonesian communities whose cultural forms were given a space for display at festivals for
The British Institution for
Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom, had been formed in May
1805 by important members of the Royal Academy and members of the
aristocracy who were patrons and amateurs of art. The BI was thus
constituted of some of the most influential connoisseurs of the age, who
were members of the ruling classes. The interests of the BI were
representations and commodities. For the professionals responsible for producing and circulating news
images, ‘the world’ as a knowable entity is part of the commodity they produce,
evaluate and circulate. They edit the world section of major news magazines or
newspapers, some of which promise to bring you the world. They work at global
news agencies that circulate images worldwide or at visual content producers that
provide clients a world of images through massive imagebanks. Every February the
World Press Photo competition recognises the most powerful journalistic images
the fate of the army in a daunting and
unpopular war. 11
As we saw in the previous chapter, the ‘heroicizing
modes of traditional battle art’ were in the 1840s already
dominated by representations of war that were read as
‘factual’ and ‘realistic’. Only in such public,
state-patronised spheres such as the Westminster Hall competition did