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, and the USA to do so. This is a fascinating account of how musicians have constantly sought to build organisations that represent their interests, often seeking to limit competition by trying to ensure that musical employment is open only to members – and that membership is strictly controlled. Attali (1985) provides a compelling account of how musicians’ working lives were transformed by the onset of industrial capitalism, while Kraft (1996) provides an excellent study of US musicians’ early encounters with the recording industry and Stahl (2013) offers a similarly

in Players’ work time
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Live television and improvised comedy in the Soviet Union, 1957–71

1961 and 1971, KVN became the most popular programme on Soviet television. A survey of Leningrad residents in 1967 showed that over 70 per cent of television viewers, from a cross-section of ages and occupations, regularly watched the show (Firsov, 1971). KVN was a competition between teams from universities, institutes, factories and workers’ clubs across the Soviet Union. Each team performed comedy sketches as well as improvised segments in dialogue with their competitors. The studio audience also took part in the show. A jury composed of media celebrities awarded

in Popular television in authoritarian Europe
A tale of three cities

venue. He famously met any requests for songs with a forthright ‘fuck off!’. However, he had managerial experience with Slaughter and 172 Networks of sound, style and subversion the Dogs, Ed Banger and the Nosebleeds, and a short-lived band called the Panik, featuring Joy Division’s original drummer, Steve Brotherdale, and when he saw their now legendary performance at a battle of the bands competition at Rafters he offered to manage them – cornering Sumner in a phone box the next day. Another member of the audience that night was Tony Wilson, who was equally

in Networks of sound, style and subversion
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The Amalgamated Musicians’ Union, 1893–1918

extending to combating competition from military and police bands and foreign musicians. Although amateurs were (along with all other non-unionised labour) part of an over-supply in the job market that kept rates of pay low and conditions poor, the Union’s initial concerns about military and police bands were largely aesthetic and based on combating the widespread perception that they could play to a higher standard than many theatre musicians. This was largely a provincial problem, but when the Union established a London Branch in 1896 it became increasingly aware of the

in Players’ work time
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network, generate emergent properties which are in turn central to the Conclusion 239 mobilisation of collective action and the generation of a music world. In a network whose members share particular tastes and interests and where those shared tastes and interests frame interaction, the likelihood of collective action centred upon those interests increases sharply. The combined effect of competition, mutual support and incitement draws network members into action, shifting their reference group and shielding them from external factors which might otherwise inhibit

in Networks of sound, style and subversion

(dialogue, effects and extra-diegetic music) is very noticeable. In 1991 the film was entered for a competition sponsored by Spain’s Independent Association of Amateur Filmmakers (Asociación Independiente de Cineastas Amateurs). Quite unexpectedly, being praised for its surreal, comic ending and its promising sound quality, the unplanned short from hell took first prize. Reflecting on his experience, Amenábar comments: ‘ La cabeza

in Alejandro Amenábar

coverage of festivals and competitions, from local to international level, in which judges’ decisions, short-lists and award-winning came under close scrutiny, hobby publications assumed significance as official mouthpieces for the movement’s disparate practitioners. Dissenting voices were important amidst the approbation and, at times, somewhat self-promoting rhetoric. Some early critics were scathing in

in Amateur film
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Meaning and practice, 1927–77

Amateur film: Meaning and practice 1927–77 traces the development of non-professional interests in making and showing film. It explores how amateur cinematography gained a following among the wealthy, following the launch of lightweight portable cine equipment by Kodak and Pathé in Britain during the early 1920s. As social access to the new hobby widened, enthusiasts began to use cine equipment at home, work, on holiday and elsewhere. Some amateurs made films only for themselves while others became cine club members, contributors to the hobby literature and participated in film competitions from local to international level.

The stories of individual filmmakers, clubs and the emergence of an independent hobby press, as well as the non-fiction films made by groups and individuals, provide a unique lens through which contemporary responses to daily experience may be understood over fifty years of profound social, cultural and economic change. Using regional film archive collections, oral testimony and textual sources, this book explores aspects of family life, working experience, locality and social issues, leisure time and overseas travel as captured by filmmakers from northern and northwest England. This study of visual memory, identity and status sets cine camera use within a wider trajectory of personal record making, and discusses the implications of footage moving from private to public spaces as digitisation widens access and transforms contemporary archive practice.

Modernising Spain through entertainment television

the presenters themselves (TeleRadio, 334, 25–31 May 1964). The accusations of ‘foreignisation’ became part of the competition between the studios in Madrid and Barcelona. In an interview he gave in 1963, Kaps had to deny not only that Monday’s Friends was at war with Big Parade (Gran parada), the leading variety show produced in the capital, but also that the star of the programme was always a foreigner (Solidaridad Nacional, 9 September 1963). Between 1964 and 1966, a series of changes transformed a model of television that was living on the breadline, and in

in Popular television in authoritarian Europe
BBC America and transnational constructs of Britishness

massive expansion of digital channels and international competition’.37 Upon his appointment, he unveiled the BBC’s new management structure announcing that the organisation would be spending at least £100 million more on BBC programming and services in the coming year.38 As Dyke made the transition, more criticism was being levelled against the television industry, which was accused of ‘lagging behind society and failing to reflect the multicultural nature of the country’. As 28 Adjusting the contrast a partial response during the Race in Media Awards ceremony in

in Adjusting the contrast