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Davies 03_Tonra 01 29/05/2012 17:36 Page 58 3 Organised competition In Chapter 1 we talked about some of the key characteristics of pre-modern sport and how they were closely linked to the social, economic and cultural structure of contemporary society. Many of these characteristics disappeared as sport was transformed by the fundamental changes that took place in British society during the nineteenth century. This transformation was driven by the spread of economic reorganisation, which increasingly broke down the old social, economic and cultural relations

in Cricket and community in England
Canals, roads and railways in Manchester

3 Competition and complementarity: canals, roads and railways in Manchester This chapter analyses the interplay between canals and other modes of transport in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Manchester. A broad literature has compared and contrasted the relative strengths and weaknesses of road, canal, coastal and rail transport during the first Industrial Revolution.1 It is now well known that roads provided a far greater geographical coverage than any other inland transport mode before 1850, when Britain possessed 22,000 miles of turnpiked road (itself

in Transport and the industrial city
Cultural revolution and feminist voices, 1929–50

1 The early ‘Miss Jamaica’ competition: cultural revolution and feminist voices, 1929–50 Introduction T he first ‘Miss Jamaica’ beauty competition took place in 1929 and was sponsored by the national newspaper the Daily Gleaner, then closely aligned with planter-merchant interests. The Gleaner’s editor was Herbert G. de Lisser, the most dominant figure in Jamaican literature and publishing, whose reign at the paper extended from 1904 to 1944. ‘Miss Jamaica’ represented an attempt to mark the cultural and racial supremacy of the white-creole planter

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

than the potential to challenge its policies as they affected medical mission services that presented the real opportunity for a new faith sector to flex its muscles and demonstrate its strength through unity. ‘Political implications’: cooperation and competition between the MMC and the colonial state If the primary impetus for the establishment of

in Beyond the state

it. Though there had always been rumours of competition, 1 from 1847 P&O had to deal with rivals of real substance. Australia and the India & Australia Mail Steam Packet Company 2 In 1770, Captain James Cook found the east coast of Australia, and by November 1792, a ship had arrived in Sydney from North America with cargo to trade. Other ships soon followed. With the advent

in Flagships of imperialism
Race, nation and beauty contests, 1929–70

The Caribbean Post's treatment of West Indian femininity reflected the growing significance of the beauty contest in the British Caribbean. Phyllis Woolford, 'Miss British Caribbean' of 1948 was pictured on the cover of the Post, epitomising modern Caribbean womanhood. This book examines the links between beauty and politics in the Anglophone Caribbean, providing a cultural history of Caribbean beauty competitions. It discusses the earliest Caribbean beauty competition, 'Miss Jamaica', launched in 1929 on the cusp of Jamaican cultural blossoming, and explores the emerging radical feminist voices amidst the cultural revolution. The 'Miss Trinidad' beauty competition, started in 1946, doubled as the search for an annual 'Carnival Queen', and represented the power of the moneyed white elite against an emergent black political force. The image that emerges of Barbados's 'Carnival Queen' contest is of a decidedly bourgeois contest, in which the 'creme de la creme' of Marcus Jordan's account were the most esteemed 'young ladies' of middle-class society. It examines the institutionalisation of the 'Ten Types' model and provides examples of copycat competitions elsewhere in the Caribbean. The 'Ten Types - Miss Ebony' contest was championed as a lesson in Jamaican racial democracy for other, less advanced, West Indian audiences. The book highlights the radical vantage point of exiled Trinidadian-born communist-feminist Claudia Jones who launched a Caribbean beauty competition in London. The burgeoning black beauty culture of London was imagined, through the West Indian Gazette as a pragmatic means of acquiring the respectable appearance that was 'race-pride' work.

1800 to the present day

The structure of book is chronological but also thematic. Our analysis begins in Chapter 1, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with an inquiry into the nature of early sport and early cricket.

The following chapter, Chapter 2, investigates the way in which the early cricket clubs were formed. It will relate the development of cricket clubs to the social, economic and cultural changes that took place during the last four decades of the nineteenth century.

We then move on, in Chapter 3, to the issue of competition. What was the nature of early competition? We will assess the concept of the challenge match and also evaluate how such events contributed to the early development of the sport.

Moving into the twentieth century, in Chapter 4 we investigate the significance of the two world wars as regards the development of cricket. In what sense were they a rupture?

As regards the post-war era, Chapter 5 examines a range of issues, including multiculturalism in the grassroots game, the role of women, equipment and junior cricket.

The final chapter, Chapter 6, brings the story of cricket up to date and investigates such issues as competition, globalisation, commercialisation, and the role of the ECB.

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A Grenadian ‘Miss World’, 1970

Afterword: a Grenadian ‘Miss World’, 1970 Beauty competitions in the Caribbean performed racialising and gendering work. They broadly reiterated the social lines between whiteness, brownness and blackness, yet this framework actually provided the opportunity to renegotiate such categories on the beauty stage, through the perform­ance of modern, cultured, feminine beauty. Competitions began as a white space, but ultimately provided a register of exemplary brown femininity and helped to make brownness iconic of the region. Beauty contests established a distinctive

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Constructing the contest in Barbados, 1958–66

3 Parading the ‘crème de la crème’: constructing the contest in Barbados, 1958–66 T he ‘Carnival Queen’ beauty competition began in Barbados in 1958 and was modelled after its lucrative Trinidadian equivalent. Anglican Barbados did not have an annual carnival celebration before 1958. The organisers of the ‘Carnival Queen’ competition, the newly formed Barbados chapter of the Junior Chamber of Commerce (Jaycees), invented a carnival, consisting primarily of the music, dance and glamour of the ‘Carnival Queen Show’. The beauty competition formed the centrepiece

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood
Jamaican beauty competitions and the myth of racial democracy, 1955–64

4 Fashioning ‘Ebony Cinderellas’ and brown icons: Jamaican beauty competitions and the myth of racial democracy, 1955–64 Jamaica, which not only by her own boast, but by world acclaim has long ago shown the right concept which enables peoples of diverse races to live and move together as one, has struck the final chord in a unique contest – TEN TYPES–ONE PEOPLE.1 I n 1955, Jamaica celebrated a national festival, ‘Jamaica 300’, which commemorated 300 years of Jamaica’s history as a British colony. A highly visible part of the year-long celebration was the ‘Ten

in Imagining Caribbean womanhood