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residing into St. George’s convent in Southwark.86 Despite the abundance of evidence for a cooperative network of relationships between congregations and orders in the nineteenth century, there is evidence that competition for candidates and congregational rivalry did exist. Mère Julie (Julie Marguerite Guillemet) was concerned in 1848 that the Somers Town convent was ‘in [a] most painful and precarious’ position because ‘several religious communities were being introduced into England, and had settled in the neighborhood of our houses’. The founder of the Faithful

in Contested identities

you have the lion kingdom, there’s a lot of competition, and competition can turn into violence. I’m not recommending it, I’m just saying that it occurs. 20 Angela’s belief that elements of violence were inherent in sex led me to ask about sadomasochism – which she viewed as ‘not wrong’ but a malady that

in The Pope and the pill

competition for other girls who never left home. They were smart looking, well dressed and their manners and speech were a ­distinct asset. However, when asked if they were going to marry a farmer some retorted, ‘I guess I’m too wise for that’.16 Single female emigrants, as Meaney, O’Dowd, and Whelan point out, sought ‘independence’ as well as ‘better living and working conditions’; in the process, they caused angst among Catholic Church authorities, who realised that these women were rejecting the idealised version of Irish womanhood for something different and distinctly

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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without an explicit link to feminism. 53 Religion was relevant to and influenced by the post-war world. Hugh McLeod points to a national Christian identity that both the Second World War and the Cold War encouraged in Western nations. He highlights continued church-building, Christian socialisation in schools and confessional identities into the 1960s. 54 Church attendance, though, was declining; this religious world appeared in competition with an affluent 1950s and 1960s culture and its materialistic world of leisure and consumerism. 55 The narratives of the 1950s

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age

… focussed on my gift of self … What it cost my parents I didn’t apprehend … how inhuman that old system was, and how amazing that my parents accepted it so willingly. 117 Catholic socialisation and the social norms of religious life that emphasised the ‘gift of self’ and the separateness of the life of enclosure had taken on sacral dimensions. But post-war modernity gave rise to a new concept in direct competition with such ideas. As Pat Thane has argued, new constructions of the family placed it more firmly as the means and the symbol of both personal stability and

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age