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(dialogue, effects and extra-diegetic music) is very noticeable. In 1991 the film was entered for a competition sponsored by Spain’s Independent Association of Amateur Filmmakers (Asociación Independiente de Cineastas Amateurs). Quite unexpectedly, being praised for its surreal, comic ending and its promising sound quality, the unplanned short from hell took first prize. Reflecting on his experience, Amenábar comments: ‘ La cabeza

in Alejandro Amenábar

coverage of festivals and competitions, from local to international level, in which judges’ decisions, short-lists and award-winning came under close scrutiny, hobby publications assumed significance as official mouthpieces for the movement’s disparate practitioners. Dissenting voices were important amidst the approbation and, at times, somewhat self-promoting rhetoric. Some early critics were scathing in

in Amateur film
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Meaning and practice, 1927–77

Amateur film: Meaning and practice 1927–77 traces the development of non-professional interests in making and showing film. It explores how amateur cinematography gained a following among the wealthy, following the launch of lightweight portable cine equipment by Kodak and Pathé in Britain during the early 1920s. As social access to the new hobby widened, enthusiasts began to use cine equipment at home, work, on holiday and elsewhere. Some amateurs made films only for themselves while others became cine club members, contributors to the hobby literature and participated in film competitions from local to international level.

The stories of individual filmmakers, clubs and the emergence of an independent hobby press, as well as the non-fiction films made by groups and individuals, provide a unique lens through which contemporary responses to daily experience may be understood over fifty years of profound social, cultural and economic change. Using regional film archive collections, oral testimony and textual sources, this book explores aspects of family life, working experience, locality and social issues, leisure time and overseas travel as captured by filmmakers from northern and northwest England. This study of visual memory, identity and status sets cine camera use within a wider trajectory of personal record making, and discusses the implications of footage moving from private to public spaces as digitisation widens access and transforms contemporary archive practice.

A cinematic response to pessimism

: film is in direct competition with God for the creation of worlds. No other art could claim as much, though all other media have tried. Every other art form relies on the presence of a viewer/spectator to enact worlds via the enlivening motility of the imagination. Poetry, novels, painting, sculpture – even theater and dance! – all these require an audience. Film does not. For

in Cinema, democracy and perfectionism

culture, especially in the face of competition from anglophone filmmakers. Adapting Pagnol and Provence 151 The opening credits of both films emphasize their place in a national cultural and literary tradition. ‘d’après l’oeuvre de MARCEL PAGNOL de l’Académie Française’ precedes any of the other major acknowledgements and works to assert the films’ credentials as quality adaptations, and – in turn – vouchsafes the adaptive source with the imprimatur of his being one of ‘les Immortels’: member of a pre-eminent French cultural institution that has included such

in French literature on screen
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This chapter charts the topography of the British film industry in the 1920s, when Anthony Asquith began his film career. Asquith entered the film industry in the mid-1920s, towards the end of the troubled silent period when the production industry in Britain was in decline in the face of competition from the American film. The industry struggled to find a position in the market and seemed to many on the brink of extinction. The 1928 Cinematograph Films Act effectively laid the foundations for a British production industry by, among other provisions, requiring exhibitors to screen a number of British films as part of their annual schedules. It was also a period marked by ‘a lively engagement with issues of film criticism and aesthetics’, which was stimulated in part by the new adventurous films from Germany, France, the Scandinavian countries, and the Soviet Union. Tell England (1931), the much-delayed project about the Gallipoli campaign during the First World War, was to be Asquith's first sound film proper, though, as with Shooting Stars, he was to work in collaboration with another experienced figure. British Instructional had proved to be a congenial context for the start of a career in film making; the next phase of Asquith's career was to prove somewhat more problematic.

in Anthony Asquith

Institute of Amateur Cinematographers (IAC) is identified too, as is the part played by amateur film competitions. Similarities emerge when comparing how clubs began and evolved in response to technological changes and the broader societal and cultural shifts that affected people’s involvement in formal or organised leisure pursuits. Yet, generalisations cannot mask the distinctive contributions of many individuals. Without such

in Amateur film
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-first-century viewers, but every now and then there is a spark of inventiveness in the episodes viewed for this study that reminds one of what the four were capable in their palmy days of feature film-making. The rapid expansion of television production certainly provided competition for cinema film-making: a tiny symptom of the times is found in the changing title of Peter Noble’s annual The British Film Yearbook to The British Film & Television Year Book from the 1951–52 edition. The strain of potent melodrama, costume or contemporary, was no longer a major element of British

in Four from the forties
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Equality and the career woman comedy

, various elements in the final scene complicate and even contradict these ‘biological facts’. Although Adam’s candidacy for the judgeship suggests his patriarchal triumph, the scene is equally concerned with re-establishing the couple’s relationship as one based on ‘balance, equality [and] mutual everything’ (Amanda’s description of marriage). The scene demonstrates that playful competition is an integral part of this balance, with both giving as good as they get. The function of the song ‘Farewell, Amanda’ is crucial. Originally written by Amanda’s admirer, Kip Lurie

in Hollywood romantic comedy States of the union, 1934–65

member of the SWAT team. 6 As the example of Léon suggests, where the garment allows Léon to pass unnoticed, its function, like all clothes, is one of protection; but like the suit, it is also, as explained above, a garment which anonymises. The diving suit, more than the suit, turns the character into a cipher, emphasising his maleness, and specifically male competition, at the expense of other traits. For

in The films of Luc Besson