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José Luís Fiori

with a basic consensus on American exceptionality that previously united American elites. It is possible to list the main premises synthetically, without necessarily following the order of their presentation in the strategy: the international system is a space of permanent competition for power between sovereign states, which are responsible for the construction of a peaceful world order; the world is made up of strong, independent and sovereign nations, with their own cultures, values, ideas and dreams; American values are not universal and, though

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Paul Currion

, K. ( 2015 ), Finance Case Study ( Brighton : Centre for Research in Innovation Management, University of Brighton ). Harford , T. , Hadjimichael , B. and Klein , M. ( 2004 ), Aid Agency Competition: A Century of Entry, but no Exit ( New York : The World Bank

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

, like women and youths, sought to protect their communities, showing willingness to take an active part in crisis management and to be recognised as legitimate contenders for power in the marketplace of local influence. Moments of crisis create opportunities for authority negotiation and competition. As our examples show, the terms of these contestations are influenced (but not determined) by long- and short-term histories. Each case tells a specific story. In the Kolobengou case in Guinea

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

architectural category of the worldwide Design of the Year competition ( Scott-Smith, 2018b , 2019 ; Wainwright, 2017 ). No architects, however, were involved in its development. Even the main designer admitted, when I interviewed him in 2017, that it is something of a stretch to call this architecture. ‘If it were architecture,’ he told me, ‘it would be a brutalist architecture.’ Rather than thinking about specific locations, he explained, his aim was to produce something universal

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

looming environmental disasters. Domestically, the liberal social contract is coming apart in many Western states as the coalition of those who have not benefited from the decades of wealth accumulation after 1979 turns to populist politicians and looks for scapegoats, with experts, immigrants and Muslims seen as prime targets. The commitment to liberal institutions that create limits to the scope of political competition – rights, the rule of law, freedom of the press – and to the basic level of respect due to all persons, be they citizens or refugees

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

measured’. The inter-organisational competition for donor support can also impede the public acknowledgement of security incidents, or even the sharing of information about incidents with donors, whether concerns about donor repercussions are well placed or not. As one interviewee attested, ‘If an organisation has to relocate for a week because of conflict and they come back to find their generators are gone, their vehicles are gone … they’re not necessarily keen on going out to their donors and explaining everything that’s happened, because they’re worried that the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

empires often owed their preeminence to their ability to control the source and/or the trade in gold, ivory, slaves, and salt. Bloody wars of conquest were fought over natural resource control. The colonial period witnessed the expansion of this competition as European powers vied among themselves to gain control over African gold, diamonds, and ivory. And many of the continent’s most violent modern-day conflicts have been fueled directly or indirectly by the desire to reap the economic benefits of national resource exploitation. From Angolan and Nigerian oil to the

in African security in the twenty-first century
Towards Europeanisation?
Edward Stoddard

High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana’s public rhetoric on energy policy was far more political than his Commission colleagues and highlights the fact that senior figures in the Council Secretariat had misgivings about the Commission’s liberalisation agenda in energy. Youngs (2009: 41) also highlights how some argue that the European Commission instrumentally promotes a liberal approach to energy because doing so fits with policy areas where the Commission already has competences (for example, competition, internal market, trade). Youngs

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Abstract only
German–Israeli relations, 1949–69
Author: Lorena De Vita

The rapprochement between Germany and Israel in the aftermath of the Holocaust is one of the most striking political developments of the twentieth century. German Chancellor Angela Merkel recently referred to it as a ‘miracle’. But how did this ‘miracle’ come about? Drawing upon sources from both sides of the Iron Curtain and of the Arab–Israeli conflict, Lorena De Vita traces the contradictions and dilemmas that shaped the making of German–Israeli relations at the outset of the global Cold War. Israelpolitik offers new insights not only into the history of German–Israeli relations, but also into the Cold War competition between the two German states, as each attempted to strengthen its position in the Middle East and the international arena while struggling with the legacy of the Nazi past.

Navigating between trouble and promise
Gustaaf Geeraerts

global environment, economic power and prosperity, access to resources, and cutting-edge technologies are defining both power and vulnerabilities, turning competition in these areas more and more into a securitised game (Geeraerts and Huang, 2016). Economic security is fundamentally different from military security (Ronis, 2011). Whilst military threats to national security are both specific and intentional, economic threats are both diffuse and systemic, they may 152 Selected countries and groups be unintended or a secondary consequence of state action (Sperling

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific