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with a basic consensus on American exceptionality that previously united American elites. It is possible to list the main premises synthetically, without necessarily following the order of their presentation in the strategy: the international system is a space of permanent competition for power between sovereign states, which are responsible for the construction of a peaceful world order; the world is made up of strong, independent and sovereign nations, with their own cultures, values, ideas and dreams; American values are not universal and, though

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

( Brighton : Centre for Research in Innovation Management, University of Brighton ). Harford , T. , Hadjimichael , B. and Klein , M. ( 2004 ), Aid Agency Competition: A Century of Entry, but no Exit ( New York : The World Bank ). Jacobsen , K. L. ( 2015 ), ‘ Experimentation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement

, like women and youths, sought to protect their communities, showing willingness to take an active part in crisis management and to be recognised as legitimate contenders for power in the marketplace of local influence. Moments of crisis create opportunities for authority negotiation and competition. As our examples show, the terms of these contestations are influenced (but not determined) by long- and short-term histories. Each case tells a specific story. In the Kolobengou case in Guinea

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

looming environmental disasters. Domestically, the liberal social contract is coming apart in many Western states as the coalition of those who have not benefited from the decades of wealth accumulation after 1979 turns to populist politicians and looks for scapegoats, with experts, immigrants and Muslims seen as prime targets. The commitment to liberal institutions that create limits to the scope of political competition – rights, the rule of law, freedom of the press – and to the basic level of respect due to all persons, be they citizens or refugees

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation

architectural category of the worldwide Design of the Year competition ( Scott-Smith, 2018b , 2019 ; Wainwright, 2017 ). No architects, however, were involved in its development. Even the main designer admitted, when I interviewed him in 2017, that it is something of a stretch to call this architecture. ‘If it were architecture,’ he told me, ‘it would be a brutalist architecture.’ Rather than thinking about specific locations, he explained, his aim was to produce something universal

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

empires often owed their preeminence to their ability to control the source and/or the trade in gold, ivory, slaves, and salt. Bloody wars of conquest were fought over natural resource control. The colonial period witnessed the expansion of this competition as European powers vied among themselves to gain control over African gold, diamonds, and ivory. And many of the continent’s most violent modern-day conflicts have been fueled directly or indirectly by the desire to reap the economic benefits of national resource exploitation. From Angolan and Nigerian oil to the

in African security in the twenty-first century
Towards Europeanisation?

High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana’s public rhetoric on energy policy was far more political than his Commission colleagues and highlights the fact that senior figures in the Council Secretariat had misgivings about the Commission’s liberalisation agenda in energy. Youngs (2009: 41) also highlights how some argue that the European Commission instrumentally promotes a liberal approach to energy because doing so fits with policy areas where the Commission already has competences (for example, competition, internal market, trade). Youngs

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Navigating between trouble and promise

global environment, economic power and prosperity, access to resources, and cutting-edge technologies are defining both power and vulnerabilities, turning competition in these areas more and more into a securitised game (Geeraerts and Huang, 2016). Economic security is fundamentally different from military security (Ronis, 2011). Whilst military threats to national security are both specific and intentional, economic threats are both diffuse and systemic, they may 152 Selected countries and groups be unintended or a secondary consequence of state action (Sperling

in The European Union in the Asia-Pacific
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

The ‘Turkish question’ is historically related to the possibility of establishing an Islamist, socialist or nationalist state. This chapter emphasises the importance of another frequently neglected international event, the Baku Congress of 1920, which was as the First Congress of the Peoples of the East. It explores the extent to which the ideologies of Islamism, communism and nationalism were in competition when deciding the future of the Turkish state. In particular, it explains why the nationalist group was not the only potential ally of the Bolsheviks and why the Baku Congress became the first important international platform to discuss the Turkish question among the other issues of the Eastern peoples. It concludes by highlighting the leadership rivalry among the pan-Islamist Enver Pasha, Communist Mustafa Suphi and nationalism Mustafa Kemal to establish their authority in both domestic and foreign affairs.

in Turkey facing east