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C. E. Beneš

the course of this expansion of its trade routes, the city's major Italian competitors were first Pisa (on the coast south of Genoa) and then Venice (across the peninsula on the Adriatic Sea; fig. 2 ): regular cycles of competition, conflict, and negotiation with these two rival communes occupied much of the later twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 32 While a Pisan–Venetian alliance inflicted a

in Jacopo Da Varagine’s Chronicle of the city of Genoa

As the medieval town was defined by the diversity of its component elements, so it was condemned to the strains of tension and to periodic violence. Economic growth raised the stakes, leading to further differentiation of wealth and status and encouraging increased competition for control of taxation and access to markets. During the long thirteenth century, as the medieval European

in Towns in medieval England
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competition) and that apprentices occasionally changed master in the course of their training (the contract sometimes being sold on to the new master). T. B. Dilks (ed.), Bridgwater Borough Archives 1400–1445 , Somerset: Somerset Record Society, LVIII, 1945, nos. 616 (a), 628 (b), 655 (c), 673 (d). Latin, transl. by the editor, checked against the originals and corrected by

in Towns in medieval England
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a number of wealthy Italian merchants and workers in a variety of trades. The Byzantine (‘Greek’) goldwiredrawer was symptomatic of London’s luxury market. 13 No crudely optimistic picture can be drawn of harmonious coexistence in the towns of medieval England. Perceived differences, often latent but suppressed, had the potential to find voice in persecution when industrial competition or labour shortage

in Towns in medieval England
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appeals to ancient authorities in a battle over the meaning of marriage. 512 It is nevertheless true that the political struggle was at least in part articulated through reasoned argument over principles, and nominally based on evidence collected from a remarkable range of sources. In this it stood in a tradition of ninth-century Frankish political contests involving competition

in The divorce of King Lothar and Queen Theutberga
Jousts, shooting fraternities and Chambers of rhetoric

practising of their skills within towns and in competitions against guilds from other towns, remained central to their activities. But the festive nature of these occasions – the banqueting, selection of new ‘kings’, and the ludic quality of archery practice (such as toppling wooden popinjays from tall poles) – suggests a social function which went well beyond

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530

The sense of a gulf between city and court has been perpetuated, in the case of the Burgundian Low Countries, by the long-standing influence of Johan Huizinga's Herfstij der Middeleeuwen. The foundation of the Burgundian curial Order of chivalry known as the Golden Fleece was proclaimed on the market place at Bruges on behalf of Philip the Good during the festivities of his wedding to Isabella of Portugal in January 1430. The ceremonies accompanying the formal Entry of a dynast into a subject city in later medieval Europe have generated a rich and varied literature in the last generation, particularly in the case of the Burgundian Netherlands. The book includes ceremonial events, such as the spectacles and gargantuan banquets that made the Burgundian dukes the talk of Europe, the workings of the court, and jousting, archery and rhetoric competitions. The regular contests of jousters, archers and poets in towns of the Low Countries were among the most distinctive features of festive urban society in the fifteenth century. The control that late medieval urban authorities sought to exercise over the sacred, articularly over cults of saints is a phenomenon identified in Italian city states as 'civic religion'. The Burgundian court developed a reputation as one of the most spectacular in Europe: the presence and function of ceremony in court and civic society require more detailed attention.

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competitions within and between cities have been characterised in similar fashion [ 19a–c ]. 43 Needless to say, jousting fraternities (mainly in the fourteenth century) and archery or crossbow guilds (more widespread in the fifteenth) placed requirements upon their members in the cities of the Burgundian dominions which could only be fulfilled by the relatively well-off [ 17a

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530

vivants were set up along the route. Later in the day, a competition of short plays was conducted, sometimes by parishes or neighbourhoods who took the name of their principal streets or squares. 23 The dukes of Burgundy attended on several occasions and subsidised performances. In 1468 (and in 1470) the company of the Place de la Petit Fret of Lille

in Court and civic society in the Burgundian Low Countries c.1420–1530

would have seen the barbarians with swords and clubs, just as chance had armed them . 114 They erupted in competition: some hurled dust, others repeatedly threw stones. They gnashed their teeth and shouted loudly, such that they all seemed to have conspired equally in the death of this one man, having overlooked no method of injuring him. [6.] Seeing this, the bishop

in Noble Society