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Abstract only
Laura Schwartz

First wave feminism involved a fierce battle of ideas over religion – a battle which was itself crucial in the creation of modern understandings of religion and secularisation. Freethought was thus a significant current in the women’s movement, existing alongside and in competition with the Christian values that dominated it. The Woman Question became a key ground upon which Christians clashed with

in Infidel feminism
Coping with change
S. Karly Kehoe

such as the Disruption, which was when the evangelical Free Church split away from the established Church of Scotland in May 1843, and the Irish Famine encouraged competition between dissenting groups and denominations.22 The increasingly strained relationship between the state and the Church of Scotland heightened the anxiety of all church leaders and they were deeply unsettled by the events of May 1843, which seemed to provide clear evidence of the state’s unapologetic intrusion into ecclesiastical affairs. Stewart J. Brown’s definitive study of Thomas Chalmers

in Creating a Scottish Church
Abstract only
Brian Heffernan

Commandment caused on its relationship with the freedom fighters. As has been seen in the Introduction, competition between elites over the power to define and lead the national community was very common in Europe at this time, having replaced 246 EPILOGUE the more traditional conflicts between church and state.19 This was also true for countries such as Ireland where national and confessional identities overlapped in a ‘symbiotic’ manner.20 This symbiosis did not happen automatically: unity had to be forged. The Irish War of Independence saw the self-­assertion of a

in Freedom and the Fifth Commandment
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Reformation: reformulation, reiteration and reflection
Rosemary O’Day

with other disciplines were making an impact even upon those most wedded to modernism. When historians examine the development of the debate about the Reformation since 1980 they should do so not only by discussing the substance of the academic arguments but also against the backcloth of changes in the academy. There were now many more historians than there had been in, for example, the 1960s, but much reduced opportunities for securing positions, career advancement and funding. Competition was rife and it had its effect upon the nature of historical research and the

in The Debate on the English Reformation
Refugee industrialists in the Manchester region
Bill Williams

into which Britain had been plunged by foreign competition and the Wall Street Crash.4 By spring 1936 this policy had been refined by the Ministry of Labour and the Home Office into a positive attempt to steer German industrialists seeking refuge into the areas of deepest depression: particularly into the districts designated by the Special Areas Act of 1934 for the creation of government-sponsored industrial estates (Tyneside, South Wales and the Clyde Valley of Scotland), but also into other parts of the country, including south Lancashire, in which unemployment

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Abstract only
John Privilege

and he began to excel in the fields of dogmatic theology and scripture to the extent that he was given classes in theology to teach. In 1865, Logue enrolled early in the Dunboyne course, a series of postgraduate classes requiring the submission of a treatise in theology in competition for a prize. In addition to this he was studying for ordination and had begun to feel under pressure. He told McGettigan in April 1865, ‘I feel my health rapidly giving way under the continued strain, being obliged to overwork myself during the day and in consequence passing [a] great

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
Capitalism, Communism and ‘planning for freedom’
John Carter Wood

form of extreme nationalism than as an economic theory, as the next chapter discusses.) Between mammon and Marx: the contexts of ‘planning for freedom’ Worshipping false gods: critiques of capitalism Critiques of ‘capitalism’, ‘ laissez-faire ’, ‘the present economic structure’, the ‘world-economic system’, ‘financial values’, the ‘profit motive’, ‘mammon-worship’ and ‘cut-throat competition’ recurred in the Oldham group. The pseudo-religious veneration of economic rationality was seen to encourage greed and exploitation. From its origins the CNL attacked

in This is your hour
Laura Stark

social strain-gauge’. 12 Although all manner of disputes and conflicts could give rise to sorcery, generally speaking the majority of stories depict farming or crofting households in ongoing competition with each other, although cases in which beggars went away empty-handed and muttering a curse 13 comprise their own clear sub-category of sorcery narratives. The reputations of ‘witches’ ( noita ) were thus rooted in tensions

in Witchcraft Continued
Lionel Laborie

these backgrounds. For instance, Jean Allut was a cabinet-maker, Jean Cavalier a weaver and Elie Marion a clerk.49 Jean-Pierre Poussou’s study also reveals that the Huguenots specialised in glass, bed linen and oil works in Brandenburg; they were active in banking in Switzerland and excelled in paper and silk manufacturing, as well as in jewellery and clock-making in England.50 Xenophobic feelings against French refugees prevailed mostly among the English lower classes, who were confronted by harsh foreign competition. French fashion was already in vogue by 1700, but

in Enlightening enthusiasm
Fergal Casey

competition in Ireland, the great capitalists of England determined to undersell the Irish in their own markets’.15 Manning argued forcefully in his pamphlet, and in a letter attached to the copy he sent Gladstone, for the disestablishment of the Protestant Church in Ireland.16 Four days after receiving it Gladstone told the Commons, ‘The time has now come when the Church of Ireland as a Church in alliance with the State must cease to exist.’17 Gladstone’s action was radical as: The ‘greening’ of Cardinal Manning 245 the disestablishment of the Irish Church was, like

in Irish Catholic identities