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Editor: Susan Wiseman

In examining early modern women and the poem, this book explores how women use poetry, and how poems use women, in England and Scotland in the period 1550–1680. Several decades of critical writing on 'women's poetry', 'gender and poetry', and the representation of women, or gender, in poetry have produced a rich and complex critical and scholarly field. The book looks at the primary and secondary evidence concerning two key elements in the analysis of early modern women's writing, namely, women and the poem. It first explores the way women understood the poem in terms of the reception, influence and adaptation of past models and examples, working from the reception of classical texts. It focuses on the resources women writing poetry knew and encountered in chapters on classical inheritance, the religious sonnet sequence and the secular sonnet sequence. The book then examines the world of reading and readers, and looks at poems in terms of friendships, quarrels, competitions, coteries, networks and critical reception, both then and later. It also emphasises the tales that poems tell, and how those stories both register and shape the understanding of women and the poem in the world of potential readers. In examining women and the poem, the use of women as signifiers and bearers of meaning in poetry is as significant as women's literary production.

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Researching early modern women and the poem
Susan Wiseman

and influence. Underpinning any particular assessment of women and the poem is an analysis of at least part of the society in which it existed. At present, the dominant understanding of a ‘long’ early modern period, say 1620–1760, is that poetry was at the centre of a process whereby a culture of social and then sentimental circulation gradually emerged. Such a narrative makes the Restoration a turning point at which, in the self-reflexive divisions of the social world, in tandem with the deliberate establishment of the aesthetic as a terrain of competition

in Early modern women and the poem
Margaret J. M. Ezell

authorship, coterie or social literary production is typically represented as avoiding such conflict and competition through the strategies of social decorum that shaped civil discourse. But is social circulation of texts and criticism ever that consistently smooth, controlled and civil? What might this model of the civility of social authorship hinder us from seeing? And can Dryden’s ‘young Probationer, / And Candidate of Heav’n’ help us to revisit our existing models? Although challenged successfully in some respects, J. W. Saunders’ early and influential essay on the

in Early modern women and the poem
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Female homosociality in L. T. Meade’s schoolgirl novels
Whitney Standlee

schools were lagging behind their Protestant counterparts would be confirmed by the introduction of the Irish Intermediate Education Act in 1878, and, with it, the State-run Intermediate examinations. The result was an increase in ‘controversy, unhealthy competition and dissent’ between Catholic and Protestant schools.36 Through her promotion of homosocial bonding between females in her schoolgirl novels, Meade offers a compelling counter-narrative to the rhetoric surrounding denominational schooling that served to divide girls in her homeland. In these novels, she

in Irish women’s writing, 1878–1922
Geraldine Cousin

in the context of Eden End because both plays were informed by the loss of millions of young lives in the First World War. The year 2004 was the centenary of the first performance of Barrie’s more famous ‘lost child’ play, Peter Pan (which took place on 27 December 1904 at the Duke of York’s Theatre in London). Two films commemorated the centenary: Peter Pan, directed by P. J. Hogan, and Finding Neverland with Johnny Depp as Barrie. There was also a high-profile competition to find an author to write a sequel to Peter Pan. Barrie gave the intellectual property rights

in Playing for time
The role of the Centro de Formación Literaria Onelio Jorge Cardoso and the movement of talleres literarios
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

were formalised into a national movement, modelled on the aficionado movement already created for other artistic forms. New asesores literarios were trained to lead workshops promoting creative writing in nine accepted genres (short story, testimonio, poetry, décima (oral poetry), theatre, essay, short story, poetry and children’s theatre). They were primarily organised within municipios, but provincial and national competitions (Encuentro-Debates) were also held, bringing together participants from different regions. As with the main movimiento de aficionados, the

in Literary culture in Cuba
Alberto Ajón León’s ¿Qué bolá? (What’s Up?)
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia and Meesha Nehru

-hand sector, the latter have no control over prices, except when selling off unsold books at a lower price (some of which are off-loaded to smaller bookshops). While this has its advantages (in that the lack of a sense of competition with other bookshops can lead to helpful cooperation if a specific book is requested at one shop), it also limits the scope for imagination and adaptation to a local demand. Moreover, record keeping is elementary and somewhat basic, each purchase being recorded by hand by the seller (noting title, author and price), with the manager totalling

in Literary culture in Cuba
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Haunted by the grotesque
Robert Duggan

the Falklands conflict in 1982 and elected with a large majority the following year. The emphasis during this period of economic and social reorganisation was frequently on the importance of competition, particularly through market-based solutions, as a force for positive change and a means of delivering better and more efficient services to the public. The enshrinement of competition as a desirable and perhaps natural feature of social and economic life was sometimes thought to reflect the supposedly ‘Darwinian’ nature of historical progress, with competition

in The grotesque in contemporary British fiction
William Flesch

selection of winners in the cut-throat competition for reproductive success. This is often called evolution by natural selection, but not even Darwin saw natural selection as the whole story.1 In the history of life on earth, sexual selection came to be as important to evolutionary change as natural selection was, indeed perhaps more important. But even before the evolution of sexuality there was what is now called (controversially) signal selection of which sexual selection is simply an example. As has been well documented, perhaps most notably by Alfred O. Hirschman

in Writing and constructing the self in Great Britain in the long eighteenth century
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Patsy Stoneman

general grocer. The business-man, Mr Smith, ‘“wondered how tradespeople were to get on if there was to be a continual consulting of each other’s interests, which would put a stop to all competition directly”’ (C: 200). The answer, as Noddings would hope, is that ‘her unselfishness and simple sense of justice called out the same good qualities in others’ (201). Matty is also opposed to ‘the strict code of gentility’ wherever it threatens personal relationships. She is Peter’s confidante in his practical jokes (94) and likens her angry father to King Ahasuerus (97). She

in Elizabeth Gaskell