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Editor: Susan Wiseman

In examining early modern women and the poem, this book explores how women use poetry, and how poems use women, in England and Scotland in the period 1550–1680. Several decades of critical writing on 'women's poetry', 'gender and poetry', and the representation of women, or gender, in poetry have produced a rich and complex critical and scholarly field. The book looks at the primary and secondary evidence concerning two key elements in the analysis of early modern women's writing, namely, women and the poem. It first explores the way women understood the poem in terms of the reception, influence and adaptation of past models and examples, working from the reception of classical texts. It focuses on the resources women writing poetry knew and encountered in chapters on classical inheritance, the religious sonnet sequence and the secular sonnet sequence. The book then examines the world of reading and readers, and looks at poems in terms of friendships, quarrels, competitions, coteries, networks and critical reception, both then and later. It also emphasises the tales that poems tell, and how those stories both register and shape the understanding of women and the poem in the world of potential readers. In examining women and the poem, the use of women as signifiers and bearers of meaning in poetry is as significant as women's literary production.

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Researching early modern women and the poem
Susan Wiseman

and influence. Underpinning any particular assessment of women and the poem is an analysis of at least part of the society in which it existed. At present, the dominant understanding of a ‘long’ early modern period, say 1620–1760, is that poetry was at the centre of a process whereby a culture of social and then sentimental circulation gradually emerged. Such a narrative makes the Restoration a turning point at which, in the self-reflexive divisions of the social world, in tandem with the deliberate establishment of the aesthetic as a terrain of competition

in Early modern women and the poem
The writers, the artificers and the livery companies
Tracey Hill

Lord Mayor’s Show was a suitably splendid reflection of the status of the role it inaugurated. The celebration of the glory reflected on the Company by a mayoral incumbent was often informed by a competitive awareness of what the other Great Twelve were capable of doing, so competition between the Companies also played a part in their preparations. Archer notes that ‘companies tried to outbid each other in the sumptuousness of their display, and kept a jealous eye on the practice of the others’.5 When the Merchant Taylors heard that the Goldsmiths had purchased an

in Pageantry and power
Chagall’s Homage to Apollinaire and the European avant-garde
Annette Becker

also on a personal one, as many artists chose not to reside in their home country and moved to others. But we should avoid overstating the intellectual and artistic harmony of the avant-garde, encompassing French, German, Italian, British and Belgian artists, as well as Russian, Polish, Spanish and Swiss, in the year 1913. From Paris to New York, at the Armory Show of 1913 8 , we can find traces of these artistic exchanges, marked by competition, imitation, hints and insults exchanged face to face, or at a distance. While the arguments among the avant-garde artists

in 1913: The year of French modernism
Margaret J. M. Ezell

authorship, coterie or social literary production is typically represented as avoiding such conflict and competition through the strategies of social decorum that shaped civil discourse. But is social circulation of texts and criticism ever that consistently smooth, controlled and civil? What might this model of the civility of social authorship hinder us from seeing? And can Dryden’s ‘young Probationer, / And Candidate of Heav’n’ help us to revisit our existing models? Although challenged successfully in some respects, J. W. Saunders’ early and influential essay on the

in Early modern women and the poem
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World War in 1914–18. Artistic exchanges map a world marked by competition, imitation, insults exchanged face to face or at a distance conjointly with the strong impulse to create and promote universal and humanist art beyond national borders. This precarious balance of contrasting tendencies concludes a part of the book largely dedicated to exploring tensions, often unresolved, within French modernism.

in 1913: The year of French modernism
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Female homosociality in L. T. Meade’s schoolgirl novels
Whitney Standlee

schools were lagging behind their Protestant counterparts would be confirmed by the introduction of the Irish Intermediate Education Act in 1878, and, with it, the State-run Intermediate examinations. The result was an increase in ‘controversy, unhealthy competition and dissent’ between Catholic and Protestant schools.36 Through her promotion of homosocial bonding between females in her schoolgirl novels, Meade offers a compelling counter-narrative to the rhetoric surrounding denominational schooling that served to divide girls in her homeland. In these novels, she

in Irish women’s writing, 1878–1922
Geraldine Cousin

in the context of Eden End because both plays were informed by the loss of millions of young lives in the First World War. The year 2004 was the centenary of the first performance of Barrie’s more famous ‘lost child’ play, Peter Pan (which took place on 27 December 1904 at the Duke of York’s Theatre in London). Two films commemorated the centenary: Peter Pan, directed by P. J. Hogan, and Finding Neverland with Johnny Depp as Barrie. There was also a high-profile competition to find an author to write a sequel to Peter Pan. Barrie gave the intellectual property rights

in Playing for time
The role of the Centro de Formación Literaria Onelio Jorge Cardoso and the movement of talleres literarios
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia, and Meesha Nehru

were formalised into a national movement, modelled on the aficionado movement already created for other artistic forms. New asesores literarios were trained to lead workshops promoting creative writing in nine accepted genres (short story, testimonio, poetry, décima (oral poetry), theatre, essay, short story, poetry and children’s theatre). They were primarily organised within municipios, but provincial and national competitions (Encuentro-Debates) were also held, bringing together participants from different regions. As with the main movimiento de aficionados, the

in Literary culture in Cuba
Alberto Ajón León’s ¿Qué bolá? (What’s Up?)
Par Kumaraswami, Antoni Kapcia, and Meesha Nehru

-hand sector, the latter have no control over prices, except when selling off unsold books at a lower price (some of which are off-loaded to smaller bookshops). While this has its advantages (in that the lack of a sense of competition with other bookshops can lead to helpful cooperation if a specific book is requested at one shop), it also limits the scope for imagination and adaptation to a local demand. Moreover, record keeping is elementary and somewhat basic, each purchase being recorded by hand by the seller (noting title, author and price), with the manager totalling

in Literary culture in Cuba