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The study of German electoral politics has been neglected of late, despite being one of the most pervasive elements of the German political process. This book argues that concentration on electoral politics facilitates deeper understanding and appreciation of the German political system. It provides explanations and analysis of the federal electoral system, its evolution and the challenges that have been made to its format; discusses the role of electoral politics in relation to political parties and to the public; and the influence of second-order elections in the German political system. The book goes on to evaluate the effectiveness of the German electoral system in relation to its functions, and challenges the premise that electoral politics makes a difference in Germany. Ultimately, it aims to reconcile the apparently limited role that elections have in determining the composition of governments with the notion that there is a ‘permanent election campaign’ in existence in German politics.

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Geoffrey K. Roberts

largest single party in the Bundestag. So had the Christian Democrats succeeded in displacing Brandt, the outcome would have been contrary to the desires of the electorate. The point of this survey of changes in governments is that Bundestag elections do not usually directly affect the composition of governments. The 1998 election was an exception, since relatively large transfers of support from the Christian Democrats and FDP to the SPD took place (the Greens lost vote-share in that election). In 1969 the new coalition partners (SPD and FDP) together had a slightly

in German electoral politics
Limiting Liberal Democrat influence
Timothy Heppell

responsibility (Cabinet Office, 2010a ). Published at the same time as Our Programme for Government was a separate document entitled the Constitutional Agreement for Stability and Reform , which mapped out further details on how the coalition would work, explaining, for example, issues around the composition of government, how the principles of collective responsibility would operate, and voting in

in Cameron
Cameron Ross

tables 4.3 and 4.4). However, factors other than the ethnic one must be considered in assessing the likelihood of secession and the prospects for democratic consolidation in the republics. The most important additional factor is the overall wealth and economic status of the federal subjects and the degree to which they are economically dependent on the centre and this is one of the topics we now turn to in chapter 5. Table 4.3 Nationality Bashkir Russian Tatar Others Ethnic composition of government elite in Bashkortostan, 1990–97 % of population Secretaries of

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
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The Conference of Religious in Ireland (Justice Commission)
Joe Larragy

generally – is affected by several factors including the balance of forces the between capital and labour, previously embedded patterns of the welfare state, the current composition of government, and electoral sentiment. The challenge for the CVP was to achieve its goals taking account of shifts in some of these independent factors and to get its timing right as between economic and political cycles. Increasingly, CORI Justice got into the fray as the leading voice on the issue of relativity between social welfare and average earnings. This campaign is instructive, both

in Asymmetric engagement
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The role of popular culture between the wars
Christine Grandy

Chicago Press, 2002), pp. 139–57; M. O’Brien, ‘The Celluloid War: Packaging War for Sale in Nazi Home-Front Films’, in Etlin (ed.), Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich, pp. 158–80. 39 N. J. Cull, Selling War; James Chapman, The British at War: Cinema, State, and Propaganda 1939–1945 (London: I. B. Tauris, 1998). 40 E. Shortt, speech to the Conference of the Cinema Exhibitors’ Association, 27 June 1935. 41 Harold Perkin notes that the composition of government was increasingly middle class after World War I, due in part to Lloyd George’s effort to include

in Heroes and happy endings
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy and Michele Crepaz

practices are in use in the Departments of Finance or Agriculture where the ministers occupy top positions in the WKÖ and the Farmers’ Association (Baunernbund). As discussed in the section about the nature of lobbying, Austrian political parties and social partners share a substantial part of their membership. As a result, the prohibition of role accumulation for social partners would have undermined the revolving doors between these organisations with consequences for the composition of government (Crepaz, 2016 ). Overall, the Austrian lobbying law can

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)