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Geoffrey K. Roberts

1969–82 SPD; FDP 1982–98 CDU-CSU; FDP 1998–2005 SPD; Greens 2005–09 CDU-CSU; SPD 2009–13 CDU-CSU; FDP 2013– CDU-CSU; SPD (a) Temporary and unimportant changes to the composition of governments (such as the brief period of SPD minority government in 1982) have been ignored. The party listed first provided the federal chancellor. (b) GB/BHE (the Refugee party) left the coalition in 1955. (c) FVP: the Free People’s Party (Freie Volkspartei) was the short-lived party formed by the former FDP ministers and their supporters, who

in German politics today (third edition)
Raj Chari, John Hogan, Gary Murphy and Michele Crepaz

practices are in use in the Departments of Finance or Agriculture where the ministers occupy top positions in the WKÖ and the Farmers’ Association (Baunernbund). As discussed in the section about the nature of lobbying, Austrian political parties and social partners share a substantial part of their membership. As a result, the prohibition of role accumulation for social partners would have undermined the revolving doors between these organisations with consequences for the composition of government (Crepaz, 2016 ). Overall, the Austrian lobbying law can

in Regulating lobbying (second edition)