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A critical analysis of the work of John Burton
Author: Tarja Väyrynen

This book is a critical study of John Burton's work, which outlines an alternative framework for the study of international conflict, and re-examines conflict resolution. It argues that culture has a constitutive role in international conflict and conflict resolution. The book provides an overview of the mediation literature in order to locate problem-solving workshop conflict resolution within the context of peaceful third-party involvement. It analyses human needs thinking and examines the similarities between it and Burton's thinking. The book also examines the logic of Burton's argument by means of metaphor analysis, by analysing the metaphors which can be found in his human needs theory. It studies further Burton's views of action and rationality, and moves into phenomenology and social constructionism. The book takes as its starting-point a totalist theory of international conflict resolution, namely Burton's sociobiologically-oriented conflict theory, and demonstrates the logic of argument and the denial of culture underlying his problem-solving theory. It explains the dimensions of the social world in order to lay a foundation for the study of conflict and conflict resolution from the social constructionist perspective. The book presents a phenomenological understanding of conflict and problem-solving conflict resolution. Finally, it argues that problem-solving workshop conflict resolution can be best understood as an attempt to find a shared reality between the parties in conflict.

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Adrian Millar

Traditional approaches to conflict resolution Lederach Lederach is a leading proponent of transformation type conflict resolution who contends that conflict tends to occur where there are ethnic, regional and religious differences and arises over ‘long-standing animosities rooted in a perceived threat to identity and survival’ 1 and thus armed

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
The Other side
Author: Adrian Millar

Conducting an analysis of some of the most candid interview materials ever gathered from former Irish Republican Army (IRA) members and loyalists in Northern Ireland, this book demonstrates through a psychoanalysis of slips of the tongue, jokes, rationalisations and contradictions that it is the unconscious dynamics of the conflict — that is, the pleasure to be found in suffering, failure, domination, submission and ignorance, and in rivalry over jouissance — that lead to the reproduction of polarisation between the Catholic and Protestant communities. As a result, it contends that traditional approaches to conflict resolution which overlook the unconscious are doomed and argues that a Lacanian psychoanalytic understanding of socio-ideological fantasy has great potential for informing the way we understand and study all inter-religious and ethnic conflicts and, as such, deserves to be further developed in conflict-management processes. Whether readers find themselves agreeing with the arguments in the book or not, they are sure to find it a change from both traditional approaches to conflict resolution and the existing mainly conservative analyses of the Northern Ireland conflict.

Tarja Väyrynen

PROBLEM-SOLVING WORKSHOP conflict resolution is a form of peaceful third-party intervention. The approach argues that it differs from the traditional approaches to mediation in many respects. It assumes, for example, that conflicts can be best resolved in small-group discussions which are guided by facilitators. The role of the facilitator is to assist the parties to communicate rather than to

in Culture and international conflict resolution
Limitations and possibilities
Tarja Väyrynen

IN THIS CHAPTER a phenomenological understanding of conflict and problem-solving conflict resolution is presented. Problem-solving workshop conflict resolution is reassessed and its area of applicability evaluated. The chapter continues the discussions introduced in the previous chapter: it clarifies the role of relevance structures, typifications, language and

in Culture and international conflict resolution
Adrian Millar

Introduction While the literature on Northern Ireland is voluminous, 1 in keeping with the Lacanian emphasis on the centrality of aggression in the construction of identity, in this chapter I examine the literature that explains the Northern Ireland conflict in terms of communal identity and, in this process, note the republican self

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
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Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

3 Identity conflict A basic feature of the universal human condition is the need to find commonality with others and form larger associations at the individual, group, and community level, and this is at the heart of the concept of identity. A variety of factors, ranging from physical attributes, language, and culture to societal norms and structures work to promote a selfawareness and self-consciousness of sameness with a larger collective. A significant positive benefit resulting from this shared identity is the ability to provide protection and security

in African security in the twenty-first century
Tarja Väyrynen

BURTON’S PROBLEM-SOLVING conflict resolution includes a version of human needs thinking. What is particular to the version – as argued in the previous chapter – is that it forms the very core of his conflict and conflict resolution theory. Furthermore, his human needs theory rejects the importance of culture in international conflict resolution. This chapter aims at studying

in Culture and international conflict resolution
Maurice Hayes

14 Moving out of conflict Dr Maurice Hayes Introduction When Maurice Hayes lectured on ‘Moving out of conflict’ on 4 June 2007, his title seemed especially apt, since the devolved administration which had come into existence as a result of the St Andrews Agreement was scarcely a month old. While it might have been tempting to dwell upon the political implications of what had been, by any measure, a remarkable transformation of the political dynamic, he was sufficiently immersed in the complex fabric of Northern Ireland affairs to reflect more broadly on how

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

Bacon 03 3/2/06 10:24 AM Page 48 3 The Chechen conflict In September 1999, Russian federal forces moved into the Republic of Chechnya, a constituent part of the Russian Federation located in the North-Caucasus region. This military campaign came to be known as the second Chechen war, following on from the first Chechen war of 1994–96, and an uneasy period of peace and de facto self-rule lasting for three years between 1996 and 1999. This peace was decisively broken when in August 1999 a unit of Chechen fighters under the leadership of former Soviet General

in Securitising Russia