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Parvati Nair and Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

Part II Culture and conflict According to Edward Said, ‘culture is sort of a theatre where various political and ideological causes engage one another. Far from being a placid realm of Apollonian gentility, culture can even be a battleground on which causes expose themselves to the light of day and contend with one another’ (Said, in Edwards, 1999 : 249). This quotation from Said shows how culture

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Gandhi (1982), A Chorus Line (1985) and Cry Freedom (1987)
Sally Dux

Race, nation and conflict: Gandhi (1982), A Chorus Line (1985) and Cry Freedom (1987) 5 The 1980s marked the apotheosis of Richard Attenborough’s directorial career in which he fulfilled his twenty-year ambition of realising a film on the life of Mahatma Gandhi. As well as being a personal achievement for Attenborough, Gandhi represented a key moment for the British film industry through its success at the box office and led to national pride by winning eight of the eleven Academy Awards for which it was nominated, the greatest acclaim to that date for a

in Richard Attenborough
Guy Austin

judged it to be empty of political analysis and hence ‘revolting’ (Godard 1991 : 139). Certain critics have subsequently attacked Le Chagrin et la pitié as ‘politically vacuous’, and for ignoring the role of the Catholic Church within Vichy (see Avisar 1988 : 19). Nevertheless, the film does engage with the internal conflicts of the Resistance, illustrating the rupture between Catholic and Communist elements

in Contemporary French cinema
Open Access (free)
Editor: Paul Grainge

As a technology able to picture and embody the temporality of the past, cinema has become central to the mediation of memory in modern cultural life. The memory of film scenes and movies screens, cinema and cinema-going, has become integral to the placement and location of film within the cultural imagination of this century and the last. This book is a sustained, interdisciplinary perspective on memory and film from early cinema to the present. The first section examines the relationship between official and popular history and the constitution of memory narratives in and around the production and consumption of American cinema. The second section examines the politics of memory in a series of chapters that take as their focus three pivotal sites of national conflict in postwar America. This includes the war in Vietnam, American race relations and the Civil Rights Movement, and the history of marginality in the geographic and cultural borderlands of the US. The book explores the articulation of Vietnam. The final section concentrates on the issue of mediation; it explores how technological and semiotic shifts in the cultural terrain have influenced the coding and experience of memory in contemporary cinema. It considers both the presence of music and colour in nostalgia films of the 1990s and the impact of digital and video technologies on the representational determinants of mediated memory. The book also examines the stakes of cultural remembering in the United States and the means by which memory has been figured through Hollywood cinema.

Theory, practice and difference

While women directors continue to be a minority in most national and transnational film contexts, there are those among them who rank among the most innovative and inventive of filmmakers. Filmmaking by women becomes an important route to exploring what lies outside of and beyond the stereotype through reflexivity on violence and conflict, and through visual and narrative explorations of migration, exile, subjectivity, history or individual and collective memory. By documenting and interpreting a fascinating corpus of films made by women coming from Latin America, the US, Portugal and Spain, this book proposes research strategies and methodologies that can expand our understanding of socio-cultural and psychic constructions of gender and sexual politics. It critically examines the work of Hispanic and Lusophone female filmmakers. It 'weaves' several 'threads' by working at the intersections between feminist film theory, gender studies and film practices by women in Latin America, the US, Portugal and Spain. The book explores the transcultural connections, as well as the cultural specificities, that can be established between Spanish, Portuguese, Latin American and Latino contexts within and beyond the framework of the nation state. It suggests that the notion of home and of Basque motherland carry potentially different resonances for female directors.

Abstract only
David Archibald

Germany’s communist leaders in their valorisation of the International Brigades’ role in the conflict in Five Cartridges. While these chapters focused on films that represented the conflict in a manner consistent with their respective dominant national interests, the discussion on Fernando Arrabal’s Surrealist-inspired films highlighted cinema’s suitability for representing alternative, very personalised responses to traumatic histories, both personal and political. The book also outlines how the civil war has, in more recent years, provided rich material for

in The war that won't die
Representations of war and rurality in British and American film
Rachel Woodward and Patricia Winter

as scenic devices for narrative and plot purposes and as metaphors for broader arguments and anxieties about national identity and the morality of armed conflict. We explore a small selection of these representations from a vast array of possibilities, our choice of films for discussion determined by three criteria – the significance of particular films for the topic, the availability of films to us

in Cinematic countrysides
Land and Freedom/Tierra y Libertad
David Archibald

Ecumenical Jury and the international critics’ FIPRESCI Award prize at the 1995 Cannes Film Festival – and provoked sharp and heated political controversy. In contrast to the dominant view of the civil war as a Manichean conflict between fascism and democracy, Land and Freedom excavates the conflict’s revolutionary dimension, captured vividly in the quote from Orwell above, and places the complexities of Republican politics centre-stage. 1 This chapter presents an analysis of the film’s political content, argues that the social realist film form utilised by the

in The war that won't die
Abstract only
La caza/The Hunt and El jardín de las delicias/The Garden of Delights
David Archibald

perspective highlights how, decades after the conflict’s official conclusion, cinematic representations of the Spanish Civil War remained hotly contested within Spain. It is not surprising that the work of Carlos Saura provoked this aggressive right-wing response: a key filmmaker working under the dictatorship, his oeuvre includes a number of films that comment critically on the civil war and its aftermath. As has already been outlined, in the years immediately preceding Franco’s victory the dictatorship attempted to prevent any open displays of dissent in either the

in The war that won't die
patterns of the past in Vacas/Cows
David Archibald

peaceful historical trajectory, by framing the action both in and between two wars Vacas presents it as only the latest instalment in a prolonged pattern of conflict. This, then, is no wistful or nostalgic looking back, but a perplexing account of a problematic past. Vacas does not deal in detail with particular historical events, nor is there any socio-economic motivation for the events contained within in its narrative. Rather, it appears to suggest that the civil war’s social or historical contexts are a mere sideshow; it is enough to know that war will always

in The war that won't die