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Mortality, medical care and military welfare in the British Civil Wars

Historians of the British Civil Wars are increasingly taking notice of these bloody conflicts as a critical event in the welfare history of Europe. This volume will examine the human costs of the conflict and the ways in which they left lasting physical and mental scars after the cessation of armed hostilities. Its essays examine the effectiveness of medical care and the capacity of the British peoples to endure these traumatic events. During these wars, the Long Parliament’s concern for the ‘commonweal’ led to centralised care for those who had suffered ‘in the State’s service’, including improved medical treatment, permanent military hospitals, and a national pension scheme, that for the first time included widows and orphans. This signified a novel acceptance of the State’s duty of care to its servicemen and their families. These essays explore these developments from a variety of new angles, drawing upon the insights shared at the inaugural conference of the National Civil War Centre in August 2015. This book reaches out to new audiences for military history, broadening its remit and extending its methodological reach.

Struggles and conflicts of an emerging public health system in the United States, 1915–45
Rima D. Apple

9 ‘Community healthcare’: Struggles and conflicts of an emerging public health system in the United States, 1915–45 Rima D. Apple Introduction In the first half of the twentieth century, concern for community health, particularly worries over the high rates of infant and maternal mortality and of tuberculosis cases, spurred the development of public health nursing in the United States.1 The increase in public health nurses and the variety of organisations supplying them indicate that American society strongly believed in their effectiveness. Yet, their very

in Histories of nursing practice
Author: Catherine Cox

Historians of asylums in India, South Africa and Australasia have stressed the importance of 'colonialism' as an analytic tool in the assessment of the activities of asylum officials and doctors. This book explores local medical, lay and legal negotiations with the asylum system in nineteenth-century Ireland. It deepens people's understanding of attitudes towards the mentally ill and institutional provision for the care and containment of people diagnosed as insane. The book expands the analytical focus beyond asylums incorporating the impact that the Irish poor law, petty session courts and medical dispensaries had on the provision of services. It builds on 'Mark Finnane's study of the origins and subsequent development of the asylum system. The national context to the introduction of asylum legislation is presented and the Carlow asylum district within the topography of institutional provision is situated. The focus is also on local actors in civil society - patients, families, poor law guardians, magistrates, police and doctors - and their interactions with asylums and with each other in responding to and managing the insane and insanity. Asylums and certification procedures and the lunacy inspectors' drive to publicly and practically place medical certification, and establish medical rather than legal actors as asylum gatekeepers is discussed. Irish families invoked certification to impose normative roles and to resolve conflict. The book emphasises the degree to which the asylum 'was a contested site, subject to continual negotiation amongst different parties'.

Contraception and commerce in Britain before the sexual revolution
Author: Claire L. Jones

The Business of Birth Control uncovers the significance of contraceptives as commodities in Britain before the Pill. Drawing on neglected promotional and commercial material, the book demonstrates how hundreds of companies transformed condoms and rubber and chemical pessaries into branded consumer goods that became widely available via birth control clinics, chemists’ shops and vending machines, and were discreetly advertised in various forms of print. With its focus on the interwar period, the book demonstrates how contraceptive commodification shaped sexual and birth control knowledge and practice at a time when older, more restrictive moral values surrounding sexuality uncomfortably co-existed with a modern vision of the future premised on stability wrought by science, medicine and technology. Commodification was a contested process that came into conflict with attempts by the State, doctors and the birth control movement to medicalise birth control, and by social purity groups that sought to censor the trade in order to uphold their prescribed standards of sexual morality and maintain sexual ignorance among much of the population. Of wide interest to modern historians, the book not only serves as an important reminder that businesses were integral to shaping medical, economic, social and cultural attitudes towards sex and birth control but also sheds greater light on the ambiguities, tensions and struggles of interwar Britain more broadly. Without such interwar struggles, the contraceptive Pill may not have received its revolutionary status.

This book explores how skilled nursing practice develop to become an essential part of the modern health system. It traces the history and development of nursing practice in Europe and North America. The book explores two broad categories of nursing work: the 'hands-on' clinical work of nurses in hospitals and the work of nurses in public health, which involved health screening, health education and public health crisis management. Until the end of the eighteenth century sick children were, for the most part, cared for at home and, if admitted to hospital, were cared for alongside adults. Around 1900 the baby wards of the children's hospitals had a poor reputation because of their high mortality rates due to poor hygiene, malnutrition and insufficient knowledge of child and infant healthcare . The book relates particular experiences of Australian and New Zealand nurses during World War I, With a focus on 'the life of a consumptive' in early twentieth-century Ireland, it examine the experiences of the sanatorium patient. sanatorium nursing. As sanatoria became a special division of public health, sanatorium nursing developed as a branch of nursing distinct from other branches. An analysis of public health and nursing issues during the cholera epidemic shows the changes in the city's health administration and the nursing system after the epidemic. The nurses' work with schoolchildren, coal miners and migrant workers is also examined against the backdrop of economic, social, political, racial and healthcare forces.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Ian Atherton

finding the bodies remains the holy grail of conflict archaeology. One set of mass graves that has been excavated and linked to the civil wars is at York: ten post-medieval mass graves, each containing between four and eighteen bodies, most of them adult men, none showing unhealed battle trauma.50 The investigating archaeologists suggested that they were parliamentarian troops who succumbed to disease while besieging York in 1644. For our purposes, three factors stand out. The first is the burial location. Seven of the pits were within the walls of All Saints’ church

in Battle-scarred
The influence of Florence Nightingale on Southern nurses during the American Civil War
Barbara Maling

within the confines of social norms or women’s organisations. The furthest Louisa Minor ventured out of her home environment was to visit wounded troops in local military hospitals. Despite societal concerns about proper employment for women, the Civil War was the first American conflict in which a number of prosperous Southern women provided care to strangers in military hospitals. With an increasing need for labourers as the war escalated, on 29 January 1862 (eighteen months after the onset of the war), a 48 American Nightingales special Confederate Congressional

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Painting and health preservation in seventeenth-century Rome
Frances Gage

quality, climate and winds.20 Stay put Judging whether a location enjoyed good air, either theoretically or empirically, required consideration of numerous contingencies and sometimes gave rise to quite conflicting assertions, particularly at a time when this Non-Natural was receiving increased attention in vernacular health manuals and in practices of health preservation and convalescence.21 As Panaroli noted, the options for managing the effects of air on the body were far less well known than those regarding other NonNaturals.22 One could avoid a particular food or

in Conserving health in early modern culture