The case of Hincmar of Laon in the Annals of St-Bertin
Hincmar was elected bishop of Laon – not without the assistance of the metropolitan of Rheims, who introduced him to the inner circle of the court of Charles the Bald. 4 Without any doubt Hincmar of Laon benefited from the high and influential political position of his uncle. However, the fall soon came and the relationship between the two Hincmars changed for the worse.
Other than Hincmar of Laon himself, the main actors in this conflict were King Charles the Bald and Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims, who was uncle and metropolitan of the accused
, as well as issues such as intermarriage and the settlement patterns of aliens in some of the major towns. Finally, we shall address the evidence for organised, violent conflict between English people and the groups of foreigners who, from time to time, they identified as a focus of suspicion or hatred. Taking a balanced view of this broad range of evidence will allow us to gain a firmer impression of the true extent, and limits, of English toleration of foreigners.
The contacts between England’s immigrant and native populations were
security that aliens thus enjoyed could, however, be threatened by the penalties that the crown applied on resident foreigners during periods of international conflict. In 1270–1 a diplomatic dispute between Henry III and the countess of Flanders led to mutual reprisals, in which all Flemish merchants in England, along with their property and belongings, were subject to arrest. 46 To mitigate the effects, a number of Flemings were granted royal letters of protection from the Chancery, and larger numbers of men from other parts of the continent were issued with licences
This chapter charts how Gilbert de Lacy divided the Lacy inheritance in England, Normandy and Wales amongst his three sons, Robert, Hugh, and Amaury, before Hugh reunited the major components under his own rule. The territorial extent of the Lacy holdings is explored using evidence from contemporary charters and the cartae baronum returns of 1166. As a result, a previously unknown Evreux subtenancy at Claville (Eure) has been uncovered, which descended through Amaury but nevertheless had a major impact upon Hugh and his sons. The chapter then examines Henry II’s speculative grant of the lordship of Meath to Hugh during the English invasion of Ireland, as well as the grant’s implications for the major resident powers in Ireland, including Strongbow, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair and Tigernán Ua Ruairc. For all of his later successes in Ireland, at this early stage Hugh de Lacy’s main priorities lay in Normandy. Consequently, this chapter relates how he defended the town of Verneuil against King Philip Augustus during the rebellion of 1173-4, and purchased the Norman honor of Le Pin-au Haras from Count Robert of Meulan in the conflict’s aftermath.
Historiography has taught us to see Archbishop Hincmar as a supporter of rules, of the law. In his book Hincmar et la loi , devoted to the legal background of Hincmar’s thought and its application, Jean Devisse showed how keen the archbishop of Rheims was to resolve conflicts and controversies between clergymen, magnates ( primores regni ) and kings in the most rightful way. 1 By 875, Hincmar was well known as a master of canon law. He had been a leader in many important cases: predestination; King Lothar II’s divorce, which ultimately
the wrath of King Richard.
This episode also illustrates the international reach of conflicts arising
from the complexities of transnational landholding. From 1195 to 1196,
Walter went from being an instrument of King Richard’s rule in Ireland
to the object of his ire, apparently for his failure to answer the king’s call
to arms in Normandy. Preoccupied with his Irish interests, Walter forgot
his duty as a Norman baron. This provoked Richard to confiscate Walter’s
Norman fees and demand a 1,000 mark fine. The transferability of the
largely Norman dispute was further
as Philip had demanded, the King used military action to bring the Duke to heel, and ‘thus peace was restored, [and] King Philip Augustus returned to his palace in Paris, praising and magnifying the Lord’. 22
Philip’s conflict with Duke Hugh occurred in 1184, the same year in which the Jerusalem embassy had sought aid for the Holy Land. From a broad perspective, then, Rigord’s narrative painted a picture of a king who supported the Church in the East while also protecting the Church in France, which was equally
the time meant that no competition was apparent
before Hugh was exiled in 1210. By 1222, however, the elder Marshal was
replaced by his energetic son, and Hugh was ready to return. The rebellions that gripped the British Isles from 1223 to 1224 and again from 1233
to 1234 were a direct result of King John’s creation of the earldom of Ulster,
pitting the Lacys against the Marshals. These conflicts vividly illustrate the
interconnectivity of the British Isles, and one of the dangers of transnational landholding: the international reach of conflicts.
This period also
The Dunsoete Agreement and daily life in the Welsh borderlands
– warfare was not a daily reality. Even in those texts that have been understood to exhibit Anglo/Welsh conflict on a broad scale, this region – the
Welsh borderlands – can be seen functioning differently.16
The Dunsæte Agreement illustrates how the Welsh borderlands were different from other Anglo-Saxon and Welsh kingdoms in more ways than
their reflection of Anglo-Welsh equality. As Michael Fordham and George
Molyneaux have independently argued, this document places a high value
on compromise and peacekeeping.17 In so doing, the Dunsæte Agreement
’s cousin, who died in 826. 12 He may also have witnessed Louis’s voluntary public performance of penance at Attigny in 822 to atone for the blinding of his nephew Bernard of Italy; 13 Hincmar’s later writings are certainly full of reported conflicts over the meanings of royal gestures, as well as moralising over the significance of rituals. 14
At Attigny, Louis’s confession brought a response from the bishops highlighting their own sins and negligence. 15 A political theory was developing in the mid-820s which stressed the interaction of the emperor, bishops and