reaching out, discovery and recalibration. Such
constructivist assumptions regarding human learning have long operated as place-holders for the
arrival of machine-thinking. 12
Running parallel with early computer programming, by the 1980s constructivism was also
appearing in the form of progressive pro-poor international development. Michael Edwards (1987) , for example, in his celebrated piece,
The Irrelevance of Development Studies , rehearses the late-modern antagonism
towards professional knowledge using the post-humanist premise that the
Taking the role of non-governmental organisations in customary international lawmaking seriously
and Jurisprudence 9.
5 J Brunnée and S Toope , ‘ Constructivism and International Law ’ in J Dunoff , M Pollack (eds), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations ( Cambridge University Press 2013 ) 119 .
6 On norm entrepreneurship, C Ingebritsen , ‘ Norm Entrepreneurs Scandinavia’s Role’ ( 2002 ) 37 Journal of the Nordic International Studies Association 12 . Finnemore and Sikkink (n 2) 897.
7 J Dill, Legitimate Targets? Social Construction, International Law and US Bombing (Cambridge