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Marion Laurence
Emily Paddon Rhoads

Constructivism differs from some of the other theories explored in this volume because it is not a substantive theory of International Relations (IR), per se . Unlike realism, for example, it does not rest on explicit claims about which actors matter most in international politics, nor does it advance specific predictions about how those actors will behave (Finnemore and Sikkink 2001 : 393). Instead, constructivism is a social theory, an approach to studying international relations that takes seriously the ‘dynamic, contingent, and

in United Nations peace operations and International Relations theory
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

reaching out, discovery and recalibration. Such constructivist assumptions regarding human learning have long operated as place-holders for the arrival of machine-thinking. 12 Running parallel with early computer programming, by the 1980s constructivism was also appearing in the form of progressive pro-poor international development. Michael Edwards (1987) , for example, in his celebrated piece, The Irrelevance of Development Studies , rehearses the late-modern antagonism towards professional knowledge using the post-humanist premise that the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

UN peacekeeping is a core pillar of the multilateral peace and security architecture and a multi-billion-dollar undertaking reshaping lives around the world. In spite of this, the engagement between the literatures on UN peacekeeping and International Relations theory has been a slow development. This has changed in recent years, and there is now a growing interest tin examining UN peacekeeping from various theoretical perspectives to yield insights about how international relations are changing and developing. The volume is the first comprehensive overview of multiple theoretical perspectives on UN peacekeeping. There are two main uses of this volume. First, this volume provides the reader with insights into different theoretical lenses and how they can be applied practically to understanding UN peacekeeping better. Second, through case studies in each chapter, the volume provides practical examples of how International Relations theories – such as realism, liberal institutionalism, rational choice institutionalism, sociological institutionalism, feminist institutionalism, constructivism, critical security studies, practice theory, and complexity theory – can be applied to a specific policy issue. Applying these theories enhances our understanding of why UN peacekeeping, as an international institution, has evolved in a particular direction and functions the way that it does. The insights generated in the volume can also help shed light on other international institutions as well as the broader issue of international co-operation.

Cerwyn Moore

different emotional states interpenetrate each other across a number of levels and boundaries (individual/collective-psychological/sociological/biological).17 Difficult, particularly when considering the more recent work which draws on social constructivism, does not necessarily mean impossible. However, the reason for flagging up this difficulty in constructivist work is because other interpretive approaches, especially those associated with hermeneutics and aesthetics, are more attuned or better suited to interpret how emotions are captured and articulated through

in Contemporary violence
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Northern Ireland and International Relations theory
Timothy J. White

Conclusion: Northern Ireland and International Relations theory Timothy J. White This volume has attempted to analyse the peace process in Northern Ireland through the lens of a variety of theories developed in the fields of International Relations (IR), security, and peacebuilding. While this case confounds the theoretical predictions of multi-lateral governance and the literature on decommissioning, contributors to this volume have found certain theoretical approaches, especially those emanating from constructivism, useful in explaining the arrival of a peace

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
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Alternative approaches to violence in International Relations
Cerwyn Moore

-based approach to knowledge in Weber’s sociological writing.22 Schutz’s The Phenomenology of the Social World, first published in 1932, had a great impact both on more recent writers on phenomenology in particular,23 and in sociological theory. More specifically, there is a direct influence from Schutz’s work to critical theory and interactionist or constructivist social theory (including forms of constructivism in IR), whether or not it is acknowledged there.24 Other writers whose work is shaped by phenomenology, and who contribute to the debate include Jean Paul Sartre25 and

in Contemporary violence
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya
Cerwyn Moore

modern’ war by Vivienne Jabri. See her War and the Transformation of Global Politics (London: Palgrave, 2007). Of course within the literature on social constructivism and critical security studies, there does exist some research that focuses on the role of language and meaning in conflicts. See for example, Karin M. Fierke, ‘Multiple Identities, Interfacing Games: The Social Construction of Western Action in Bosnia’, European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1996), pp. 467–497 and Karin M. Fierke, Changing Games, Changing Strategies (Manchester

in Contemporary violence
Adrian Hyde-Price

the complex interplay of factors affecting European foreign policy. This framework is based on a synthesis of elements of social constructivism, the new institutionalism and neo-classical realism. Foreign policy, it has been argued, ‘is the result of a complex interplay of stimuli from the external environment and domestic-level cognitive, institutional and political variables’ (Checkel 1993 : 297). The analytical framework

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Henrik Larsen

briefly introduce the main features and assumptions of discourse analysis within the general field of social constructivism, and present the main implications of discourse analysis for concrete empirical research. I end by describing the main dimensions of discourse analysis using the categories of Milliken (1999) : representation , policy practice and play of practice . In the second part of the chapter I highlight the use

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
A constructivist realist critique of idealism and conservative realism
Paul Dixon

the means’. Realism is usually seen as conservative because of its emphasis on the state and military power and its disdain for or scepticism of ‘progressive’ change. However, as I discuss below, there is a left realist tradition and this can be combined with constructivism. Conservative realists are elitists who favour only a very limited form of democracy and argue that the public should not influence policy because they lack the competence to come to an informed opinion. The elite supporters of the peace process in Northern Ireland have thus justified their

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland