fourteenth-century Kent. The relationship with the past here is
literally dialogic, since much of the work is concerned with a
conversation that the protagonist has with the Lollard priest John Ball.
As the protagonist puts it, ‘so we sat, and I gathered my thoughts to
hear what he would say, and I myself was trying to think what I should
ask of him; for I thought of him as he of me, that he had seen things
Augustus). Crusading had more than an administrative impact on the West; it shaped and defined the ideas of power that were central to the French monarchs’ claims of legitimacy. Over the past several years, the need for a study of the role of the crusades in shaping western political culture has been recognized, and the methodological tools more suited to such a task developed. Thomas Bisson highlighted the effectiveness of understanding the operation of power in contributing to the broad and complex conversation about the relationship among government, rulership, and
wrong set of biblical exempla drawing the wrong set of parallels for his king.
Louis was already being criticized for what was perceived by many writers as arrogance. When Bernard had delivered his apologia sermon, he had claimed that the army failed because of its pride. He did do Louis the courtesy of stopping short of naming him personally. Others did not hesitate. William of Saint-Denis, in a conversation alleged to have taken place between him and another monk, found parallels between the French army on the Second Crusade and the
use the imagery of buildings and architecture to organize their visual
information’. 64 It is
worth remembering that this is the second representation of the
dance in the film. In an earlier scene, Block’s squire, Jöns, has a long
conversation with a ‘pictor’ in a church who, in front of his depiction
of the dance of death, says that he paints the grotesqueness of the
dance in order to frighten
understanding of his reign.
This essay attempts to reach some preliminary conclusions by concentrating on one of the fullest, but least-studied, reports of Richard’s views on kingship. It is Sir William Bagot’s account of a conversation he had with the king at Lichfield, most probably in June 1398, 3 when Richard reportedly said to him:
that he desired neuer lenger to levyn thanne that he myht se the Crovne off Englond in al so hyh prosperyte, and so lowely be obeyed off alle his lieges, as hit hadde ben in eny other kyngis tyme; havyng consideracion how he hadde
On 21 September 1405 two local esquires fell into conversation with a traveller from the north at Little Walsingham in Norfolk. Asked what tidings there were, the stranger replied that there had been a great debate and battle between the earls of Northumberland and Westmorland, and that Westmorland was now the earl of Northumberland’s prisoner. 1 Intrigued, as well they might be by this startling news, which was very nearly the precise opposite of the truth, the two esquires went on to ask the traveller what news there was of Wales and of Glyn Dwr. The
For 700 years, Geoffrey Chaucer has spoken to scholars and amateurs alike. How does his work speak to us in the twenty-first century? This volume provides a unique vantage point for responding to this question, furnished by the pioneering scholar of medieval literary studies, Stephanie Trigg: the symptomatic long history. While Trigg's signature methodological framework acts as a springboard for the vibrant conversation that characterises this collection, each chapter offers an inspiring extension of her scholarly insights. The varied perspectives of the outstanding contributors attest to the vibrancy and the advancement of debates in Chaucer studies: thus, formerly rigid demarcations surrounding medieval literary studies, particularly those concerned with Chaucer, yield in these essays to a fluid interplay between Chaucer within his medieval context; medievalism and ‘reception’; the rigours of scholarly research and the recognition of amateur engagement with the past; the significance of the history of emotions; and the relationship of textuality with subjectivity according to their social and ecological context. Each chapter produces a distinctive and often startling interpretation of Chaucer that broadens our understanding of the dynamic relationship between the medieval past and its ongoing re-evaluation. The inventive strategies and methodologies employed in this volume by leading thinkers in medieval literary criticism will stimulate exciting and timely insights for researchers and students of Chaucer, medievalism, medieval studies, and the history of emotions, especially those interested in the relationship between medieval literature, the intervening centuries and contemporary cultural change.
Riddles at work is the first volume to bring together multiple scholarly voices
to explore the vibrant, poetic riddle tradition of early medieval England and
its neighbours. The chapters in this book present a wide range of traditional
and experimental methodologies. They treat the riddles both as individual poems
and as parts of a tradition, but, most importantly, they address Latin and Old
English riddles side-by-side, bringing together texts that originally developed
in conversation with each other but have often been separated in scholarship.
The ‘General Introduction’ situates this book in its scholarly context. Part I,
‘Words’, presents philological approaches to early medieval
riddles—interpretations rooted in close readings of texts—for riddles work by
making readers question what words really mean. While reading carefully may lead
to elegant solutions, however, such solutions are not the end of the riddling
game. Part II, ‘Ideas’, thus explores how riddles work to make readers think
anew about objects, relationships, and experiences, using literary theory to
facilitate new approaches. Part III, ‘Interactions’, explores how riddles work
through connections with other fields, languages, times, and places. Together,
the sixteen chapters reveal that there is no single, right way to read these
texts but many productive paths—some explored here, some awaiting future
This study brings emergent methodologies of literary geography to bear upon the unique contents—or more to the point, the moving, artful, frequently audacious contents—of a codex known as London, British Library MS Harley 2253. The Harley manuscript was produced in provincial Herefordshire, in England’s Welsh Marches, by a scribe whose literary generation was wiped out in the Black Death of 1348–1351. It contains a diverse set of writings: love-lyrics and devotional texts, political songs and fabliaux, saints’ lives, courtesy literature, bible narratives, travelogues, and more. These works alternate between languages (Middle English, Anglo-Norman, and Latin), but have been placed in mutually illuminating conversation. Following an Introduction that explores how this fragmentary miscellany keeps being sutured into ‘whole’-ness by commentary upon it, individual chapters examine different genres, topics, and social groupings. Readers from literary history, medieval studies, cultural geography, gender studies, Jewish studies, book history, and more, will profit from the encounter. Harley 2253 is famous as medieval books go, thanks to its celebrated roster of lyrics, fabliaux, and political songs, and owing to the scarcity of material extant from this ‘in-between’ period in insular literary history. England’s post-Conquest/pre-plague era remains dimly known. Despite such potential, there has never been a monograph published on Harley 2253. Harley Manuscript Geographies orients readers to this compelling material by describing the phenomenon of the medieval miscellany in textual and codicological terms. But another task it performs is to lay out grounds for approaching this compilation via the interpretive lens that cultural geography provides.
Harris notes ‘the attribution of voice and even of language to the beasts’ in many of their iterations.
Yet this boast, as R. D. Fulk, Robert E. Bjork, and John D. Niles observe, is the only Old English ‘conversation’ among the beasts of battle,
and only its outline reaches human ears, at the triple remove of space, time, and voice. That is, the speech appears before it is spoken, presumably at a physical distance from where it is spoken, and in the voice of a