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Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

to their dowers in 1419 and 1421. 44 Anne of Burgundy and Jacqueline of Hainaut, the wives of Henry VI’s uncles the dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, received such grants in the Parliament of 1423, and Bedford’s second wife, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, was similarly licensed in 1433. 45 Royal and princely courts were obvious magnets for aliens as a result of their cosmopolitan outlook, their international dynastic links and their desire to attract the brightest and best artists and scholars of the day. In the thirteenth and fourteenth

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Lester K. Little

from Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo (1538–92), probably one of its founding members, who came to be elected its head for life in 1568. 19 Lomazzo was a man of many talents, having been schooled in writing, painting, design, and music; he became a poet and essayist as well as a painter. He took a peculiar sort of Grand Tour by travelling through Italy as far south as Messina but also by heading north to see contemporary art in Flanders and Holland. Even while becoming so cosmopolitan Lomazzo developed a strong interest in local culture and tradition. One of his earliest

in Indispensable immigrants
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

blurred social distinctions and stimulated the elites to spend more on luxuries, so as to set themselves apart from the rest of the population. 3 Most of these consumer goods were produced within England, bringing about a boom in the manufacturing industries. This, in turn, attracted numerous foreign craftsmen, whose skills and capital sometimes allowed them to cater for the increasingly cosmopolitan and quickly changing tastes of English consumers more adequately than native producers. Many of these artisans employed fellow aliens as

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
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Chivalry, nationality and the man-at-arms
Simon Walker

vital recommendation that brought him entry to the king’s affinity, when he was retained by Richard II, at a fee of 40 marks per annum, around Michaelmas 1392. 32 His cosmopolitan experience was immediately put to use by the king, who sent him, via Cologne and Vienna, with diplomatic letters for the city states of northern Italy. Janico was certainly in Venice by February 1393, where he cashed a letter of credit on behalf of Henry, earl of Derby, who was then on his way back from Jerusalem, and evidently discharged his whole mission to Richard’s satisfaction, for he

in Political culture in later medieval England
Author: Irene O'Daly

John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors.

By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views.

The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.

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William Morris’s News from Nowhere and Chaucer’s dream visions
John M. Ganim

affair. The strange combination of sympathy, voyeurism and distraction that one can sense in Morris’s private life is also evident in the mechanics of narration in News from Nowhere, and it is mediated by similar devices such as the narration of Chaucer’s dream visions.24 The early twentieth century canonised a particular Chaucer: ironic, comic and realistic, most himself in the Canterbury Tales. In G. L. Kittredge’s Chaucer and his Poetry, Chaucer becomes a sophisticated cosmopolitan, only pretending to be naive.25 In Congenial Souls, Trigg has demonstrated the gender

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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Deborah Youngs

have termed the ‘Calais group’ of book-owners. Although that group was of the higher aristocracy, they were based in a cosmopolitan, commercial centre where they formed a reading network with diplomats, clerics and merchants. 34 Recently, Julia Boffey has extended the study to find evidence of a shared cultural interest in works on statecraft and military strategy among a broad cross-section of literate

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Angela Sorby

. It was articulated by Ralph Waldo Emerson in some of his essays and lectures, but somewhat counterbalanced, at least in the Northern states, by other forces such as abolitionism. 34 After the Civil War, however, conscious constructions of whiteness became a more dominant factor in public life. When Longfellow invented ‘Saxon’ characters like that in ‘The Skeleton in Armor’, he was (at least on a conscious level) promoting cosmopolitanism, not racial hierarchies. However, in the post-Civil War period, as racial hierarchies began to be legitimated by pseudo

in From Iceland to the Americas
Transformative potential of plunder in Exodus
Denis Ferhatović

that began in late ninth-century Wessex before spreading elsewhere a century later. Archaeology shows that byrig grew in population and diversity in the late tenth century, with the evidence of imported pottery indicating growing cosmopolitan tastes of the inhabitants. 26 For a poem inundated by the sands of the desert and the waves of the sea, Exodus engages frequently in meditations on various permutations of the urban landscape. Taken individually, many of these instances may not appear remarkable, but, as a whole, they bear witness

in Borrowed objects and the art of poetry
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Daniel Anlezark

the epic setting of the more urbane and cosmopolitan Mesopotamian versions, does offer Noah as a type of hero. The Middle Ages knew the Greek story in Latin translations, but were unaware of Mesopotamian myth, and so I shall pass over Gilgamesh, Atrahasis, and Sumerian flood narratives, except to note that like the biblical account, they also include the element of divine punishment for human sin. However

in Water and fire