Realism (London, 1994), pp. 20–7.
Collier CriticalRealism, pp. 61–8.
R. Bhaskar Plato etc. (London, 1994), pp. 23, 30. A. Sayer Method in Social
Science: A Realist Approach (London, 1992), p. 107.
A. Collier Marx (Oxford, 2004), pp. 144, 36.
K. Marx ‘Theses on Feuerbach’ in The German Ideology, p. 121.
Cf. H. Kaye The British Marxist Historians (London, 1995) which contains
essays on Maurice Dobb, Rodney Hilton, Christopher Hill, Eric Hobsbawm, and
Edward Thompson, and H. Kaye The Education of Desire: Marxists and the
Writing of History (London, 1992) which contains
knowledge and people-centredness.
Both had a great respect and love for archival research as well as
an encyclopaedic knowledge of published sources.99 Although
neither man was prone to discuss the philosophy of history or his
own theoretical perspective on the writing of history, both would
have sympathized with a post-positivist, critical-realist viewpoint:
One of the most common forms of post-positivism is a philosophy
called criticalrealism. A critical realist believes that there is a reality
independent of our thinking about it that science can study. (This is
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson
literature is to
act as a nexus via which a range of different forces – economic, social, political,
medical – are brought into contact or revealed to underpin the wider social
and economic ‘disqualification’ of the industrial working class.32 Writing about
nineteenth-century ‘criticalrealism’,33 Georg Lukács identifies the importance of
a ‘typical’ character, a ‘type’ that interacts with different forces within the text:
The ‘centre’ figure need not represent an ‘average man’ but is rather the product of
a particular social and personal environment. The problem is to