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The opposition of structure and agency
Peter J. Martin and Alex Dennis

on to the idea that there must be social ‘structures’, independent of actual people and constraining them. Such a conception of structural effects underlies, for example, Bhaskar’s ‘critical realism’: The relations into which people enter pre-exist the individuals who enter into them, and those whose activity reproduces or transforms them; so they are themselves structures. And it is to these structures of social relations that realism directs our attention – both as the explanatory key to understanding social events and trends and as the focus of

in Human agents and social structures
Cognitive justice, engagement and an ethic of care in learning
Steve Garlick and Julie Matthews (last accessed 19 June 2013). Huckle, J. (2004). Critical Realism: A Philosophical Framework for Higher Education for Sustainability. In P. B. Corcoran and A. E. J. Wals (eds), Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability: Problematics, Promise and Practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Jensen, M. (2002). Fleshing out a Relational Ethics: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s Contribution to Ecological Feminism. Doctoral thesis, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Jucker, R. (2002). Sustainability? Never Heard of It! Some Basics we Shouldn’t Ignore

in University engagement and environmental sustainability
Tom Woodin

special cases, no different standards. What these young people are writing is literature … and ought to be judged in exactly the same way as we judge all writing. The well-travelled road is the best road with all the old dilemmas unresolved: naturalism versus critical realism, documentary realism versus allegory, and so on.21 The need to appraise could lead to dichotomies of good and bad. As a professional playwright, McGovern, looking back, expressed the view that the value of the Fed lay in the process that allowed working-class people to start writing and to develop

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
Pat O’Connor

an interpretative one concerned with senior managers’ experiences of getting into, doing and being in senior management. Critical realism has been seen as compatible with a relatively wide range of research methods, including ethnographic and quantitative ones (Williams, 2003). Although the dominant perspective was a structural one, the possibility of agency was recognized in a context where, through increasing the visibility of inequality regimes, it was possible to convert private troubles into public issues (Wright Mills, 1970) and thus potentially create new

in Management and gender in higher education