on to the idea that there must be social ‘structures’, independent of actual people and constraining them. Such a conception of structural effects underlies, for example, Bhaskar’s ‘criticalrealism’:
The relations into which people enter pre-exist the individuals who enter into them, and those whose activity reproduces or transforms them; so they are themselves structures. And it is to these structures of social relations that realism directs our attention – both as the explanatory key to understanding social events and trends and as the focus of
Cognitive justice, engagement and an ethic of care in learning
Steve Garlick and Julie Matthews
.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/animal-agriculture-andclimate.pdf (last accessed 19 June 2013).
Huckle, J. (2004). CriticalRealism: A Philosophical Framework for Higher Education
for Sustainability. In P. B. Corcoran and A. E. J. Wals (eds), Higher Education and the
Challenge of Sustainability: Problematics, Promise and Practice. Dordrecht, Netherlands:
Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Jensen, M. (2002). Fleshing out a Relational Ethics: Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s Contribution
to Ecological Feminism. Doctoral thesis, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
Jucker, R. (2002). Sustainability? Never Heard of It! Some Basics we Shouldn’t Ignore
special cases, no different standards.
What these young people are writing is literature … and ought to be judged in
exactly the same way as we judge all writing. The well-travelled road is the best road
with all the old dilemmas unresolved: naturalism versus criticalrealism, documentary realism versus allegory, and so on.21
The need to appraise could lead to dichotomies of good and bad. As a professional playwright, McGovern, looking back, expressed the view that the value
of the Fed lay in the process that allowed working-class people to start writing
and to develop
an interpretative one concerned
with senior managers’ experiences of getting into, doing and being in senior
management. Criticalrealism has been seen as compatible with a relatively
wide range of research methods, including ethnographic and quantitative ones
(Williams, 2003). Although the dominant perspective was a structural one, the
possibility of agency was recognized in a context where, through increasing the
visibility of inequality regimes, it was possible to convert private troubles into
public issues (Wright Mills, 1970) and thus potentially create new