Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

they consider it a price worth paying for access to populations in need. That said, the ICRC has only rarely resorted to armed escorts, and in many contexts has better access than other agencies. Differential opportunities – or differential expectations about effectiveness – may also explain the differences observed in the use of advocacy and public criticism of authorities. Public criticism of those who target aid workers may be expected to attract

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

to criticisms? There have been reports of rape and violence committed by MINUSTAH soldiers, for example. Didn’t Brazil end up acting like any other regional hegemon, projecting power in its sphere of influence through the use of force and justifying this with expressions of humanitarian concern? CA: I’d say that, clearly, it was a moment of affirmation of Brazilian power – a moment to show that Brazil was prepared to use certain types of force. But, first of all, it is necessary to remember that the mission in Haiti was not a Brazilian initiative

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

fieldwork conducted between 2016 and 2019 as part the Architectures of Displacement project, which was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council of the UK and managed from the Refugee Studies Centre in Oxford. 2 In the next section of this article, I set out a series of common criticisms of architecture by humanitarians, pointing to frequently unrealistic utopianism and a lack of practicality. In the second section, I set out the differences between innovation and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

ethically acceptable to pledge not to get involved in any controversies, in particular when they are political or racial in nature. Objectively, MSF’s repeated criticisms of European leaders regarding the fate of migrants 3 – an extremely political, sensitive and controversial subject – contradict its assertion of neutrality. It might be more morally correct to condemn the atrocities witnessed by humanitarian workers than to ‘not take sides in a political controversy’, but we

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

/national right to self-determination and the Right of Return. Indeed, one of the main criticisms levelled by many Palestinians against UNRWA is that its modus operandi has arguably enabled many Palestinians – employees and non-employees alike – to normalise rather than resist and demand sustainable and effective alternatives. 8 Such alternatives, as long argued by proponents of the self-determination of Palestine (the ultimate form of self-sufficiency on a national level), should prioritise securing a political solution to the occupation; in the absence of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Laura Cahillane

irritating and obstructive of development’. He criticised the plan in Draft B, arguing that it was impossible ‘at this moment to say that any distinct form of Executive will best suit the national character’. He felt that it was imperative that the executive ‘should not be fixed in a rigid and unalterable mould’ and particularly not ‘in a cumbersome and unwieldy form’.6 A number of pages follow, which analyse the provisions of Draft B in detail and contain stinging criticism of that Draft. Figgis also made the case for his own executive proposal, distancing it from the

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution
Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

entrusted the primary responsibility for regulating the reproductive technologies in the United Kingdom to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). The 1990 Act and the HFEA were once seen as the model for effective regulation of assisted conception and embryo research but the 1990 Act, and the HFEA became the subject of increasingly intense criticism. 7 It is scarcely surprising that a statute enacted in 1990 no longer met the needs of scientific developments, undreamed of twenty years before. The Act generated prolific litigation. 8 The paternalist

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

Health to find new ways to reduce claims. 13 We will consider complaints mechanisms having first outlined the ways in which services or individuals may be made the subject of a health service public inquiry in order that the NHS as a whole can benefit from the outcome of the investigation. In the second half of the chapter we will consider criticisms of the tort system and alternative proposals such as no-fault liability. Health Service public inquiries 14 9.2 Dissatisfaction with the outcome of complaints procedures in a number of high

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
Leslie C. Green

resulted in criticism when they failed to protect civilians under threat, even when those civilians were held in UN ‘safe areas’, areas which were overrun by Serb Bosnian forces who went so far as to hold UN peacekeepers hostage. At a later stage these UN forces were replaced by military units raised by NATO contingents, whose rules of engagement were somewhat wider than had been those of their

in The contemporary law of armed conflict