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Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

they consider it a price worth paying for access to populations in need. That said, the ICRC has only rarely resorted to armed escorts, and in many contexts has better access than other agencies. Differential opportunities – or differential expectations about effectiveness – may also explain the differences observed in the use of advocacy and public criticism of authorities. Public criticism of those who target aid workers may be expected to attract

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

to criticisms? There have been reports of rape and violence committed by MINUSTAH soldiers, for example. Didn’t Brazil end up acting like any other regional hegemon, projecting power in its sphere of influence through the use of force and justifying this with expressions of humanitarian concern? CA: I’d say that, clearly, it was a moment of affirmation of Brazilian power – a moment to show that Brazil was prepared to use certain types of force. But, first of all, it is necessary to remember that the mission in Haiti was not a Brazilian initiative

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Architecture, Building and Humanitarian Innovation
Tom Scott-Smith

fieldwork conducted between 2016 and 2019 as part the Architectures of Displacement project, which was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council of the UK and managed from the Refugee Studies Centre in Oxford. 2 In the next section of this article, I set out a series of common criticisms of architecture by humanitarians, pointing to frequently unrealistic utopianism and a lack of practicality. In the second section, I set out the differences between innovation and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

ethically acceptable to pledge not to get involved in any controversies, in particular when they are political or racial in nature. Objectively, MSF’s repeated criticisms of European leaders regarding the fate of migrants 3 – an extremely political, sensitive and controversial subject – contradict its assertion of neutrality. It might be more morally correct to condemn the atrocities witnessed by humanitarian workers than to ‘not take sides in a political controversy’, but we

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

/national right to self-determination and the Right of Return. Indeed, one of the main criticisms levelled by many Palestinians against UNRWA is that its modus operandi has arguably enabled many Palestinians – employees and non-employees alike – to normalise rather than resist and demand sustainable and effective alternatives. 8 Such alternatives, as long argued by proponents of the self-determination of Palestine (the ultimate form of self-sufficiency on a national level), should prioritise securing a political solution to the occupation; in the absence of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
British news media, war and theory in the 2003 invasion of Iraq

This book analyses British news media coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. It describes the analytical framework that serves as the basis for theoretically informed and systematic analysis of wartime media performance. The book synthesises a range of models, hypotheses and explanatory variables to set out a framework composed of three models of news media performance: the elite-driven model, the independent model and the oppositional model. It provides three case studies which, in different ways, illuminate each model of news media performance in wartime. The three case studies include the case of Jessica Lynch, the case of Ali Abbas and the case of the anti-war movement. The book then presents an account of how the relationship between foreign policy, news media and war might be expected to operate, based on current theoretical understanding. In order to place British coverage of the invasion in context, the book offers brief summaries of the structure and character of Britain's television news services and its press. The book provides an analysis of the ways in which the news media's visual depictions of the war reinforced supportive coverage. It is devoted to documenting and analysing evidence for negotiated and oppositional coverage. The book also examines the representation of civilian casualties, military casualties and humanitarian operations across both television and press, three subject areas that generated a good deal of media criticism.

The external image of Germany’s foreign policy
Siegfried Schieder

Germany take a greater and more active role in global politics, and the country’s still-dominant self-perception as a ‘civilian power’ on the other hand, which is backed by German public opinion. This backing reveals a marked dissonance between Germany’s self-perception and others’ perceptions, which has been increasingly generating unease and criticism among Germany’s partners and within Germany itself. I conclude by summarising the main empirical findings and outlining discrepancies between domestic and external images of Germany. Why study the external image of

in Prussians, Nazis and Peaceniks
Neville Wylie

of the episode exposed weaknesses in the running of the organisation and in the Red Cross Movement more broadly. It revealed an institution out of touch with the popular mood, poorly led and ill equipped to meet the challenge of total war. Though many of the criticisms levelled against it were unjust, the crisis sorely tested the BRCS’s capacity to function in three key areas: the management of public debate and expectations as the crisis unfolded, the defence of its institutional autonomy against Government encroachments, and the leveraging of resources and

in The Red Cross Movement
Dean J. White

. At the UN, Belgium again asked for UNAMIR’s mandate and rules of engagement to be changed so that its troops could intervene to stop the violence, but acknowledged they would only actively intervene if there was UN support.27 There was none; on 8 April the Belgian ambassador informed Brussels that ‘certain permanent members’ were opposed to broadening the UNAMIR mandate.28 At home, the Government also came under fierce criticism following the murder of the Belgian peacekeepers, and public opinion quickly soured towards the involvement in Rwanda. In the face of this

in The ignorant bystander?
Alanna O’Malley

rebel activities in the brutal police-​state in Nyasaland, opened the British Government up to a renewed wave of criticism. The Mau Mau massacres at the Hola detention camp in Kenya in 1959 re-​emerged in the public imagination when Kenya brought a resolution demanding independence before the General Assembly in December.7 Failure to implement the General Assembly Declaration 1514, on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples in other British territories such as Basutoland (Lesotho), Bechuanaland (Botswana) and Swaziland, further weakened Britain

in The diplomacy of decolonisation