; and secondly to compare the approach and style of the cartoons themselves. It will be seen that Punch had not totally lost the comparatively radical views it held in the 1870s or its criticism of imperialism, yet the criticism was far more subtle, and there were those who supported the position of the government. Also the cartoons of the 1950s were not as humorous or as acerbic as those from the 1870s and they expressed more a resignation that the empire was in decline rather than a criticism of empire.
As is well known, Punch or the London
‘Outrage and imperialism’ explores the response of Punch to the Armenian
massacres of 1894–1896. The high moral position taken against the Ottomans –
and the advocacy of British and pan-European intervention to defend the
Armenians – is evident in the work of Sir John Tenniel and his junior
cartoonist Linley Sambourne. Characterisations of the Sultan or a generic
Turkish figure were complemented by depictions of a despicable hyena. A more
darkly humorous take on the situation was offered by E. T. Reed. In
observing Punch’s reactions, questions are prompted about the ways in which
the west has absorbed and reformulated eastern issues for its own purposes.
Punch and its readers responded with a mixture of indignation, confusion,
anger, and equivocality. In a culture dominated by Orientalist fictions and
tropes, Britons’ understanding of the nature of Muslim–Christian relations
in the Ottoman Empire was opaque at best. And criticism of Ottoman
imperialism was never permitted to interfere with attitudes towards its
entertainment; its favourite themes were overtly political: the denunciation of the imperial regime and its representatives; criticism of the defenders of the established order (police, judiciary, army, churches, Junkers, bourgeoisie, and capitalists); support for the social, cultural, and electoral struggles of social democracy, including the fight against (Prussian) militarism and German and European imperialism.
Indeed, this struggle occupied a choice position in the columns of the review. Analysis of the contents of the illustrations on the front page
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda
separated from their neighbours by tall, meticulously maintained
hedges. 5 By contrast,
the onset of British rule in 1916 introduced a new culture of colonial
criticism and reformism which targeted not only local land husbandry but
also Haya behaviour. In part, this new interventionism reflected a
positive appreciation of Buhaya’s economic potential. The young
colonial state of Tanganyika, determined
would be inspired by the work of Les Tanner.
Horne was clearly aware of the influential nature of political cartoons. The changes he instigated at The Bulletin generated significant criticism and ill-will from the traditional readership base, who lamented the great days of yore and decried any change. One strategy Horne used to counter this line of criticism was to run a series of the cartoons that had appeared in The Bulletin in earlier decades, under the title of ‘Look Back at Anger’ ( Figure 14.3 ), ‘to demonstrate how very much better drawn
aid and relief to African people. 35 Hugh Sampson, Christian Aid's publicity officer, observed that the missionary societies had a traditional suspicion and jealousy of Christian Aid. 36 This was often focused on the perceived paucity of religion in Christian Aid's work. Indeed, the BCC attracted criticism from some mission officials for ‘sponsoring secular activity under Christian auspices’ rather than ‘giving the cup of water in Christ's name’. 37
If, as Trevor Huddleston observed at the end of the decade, missionary work
were to become the preserve of MO Arbuckle. Unsurprisingly, this decision
prompted sharp criticism from Laws, who, robbed of his former authority,
bluntly asked why the mission doctors should now be considered
‘less competent’ to carry out examinations and whether in
the possible absence of Dr Arbuckle all monitoring of traffic in the
districts would grind to a halt. 66
This exchange over plague
be ‘most unwise to deal hastily with the system by which they are secured’.
Nevertheless, in an era when criticism of the EIC's administration in India and of its negative impact on the economy was considerable, the Company's supporters knew that their arguments in favour of the monopoly would sound more convincing with the ‘local inside knowledge’ about China possessed by the EIC's employees. To win support from Parliament as well as the British public, they highlighted
The importance of cartoons, caricature, and satirical art in imperial
Richard Scully and Andrekos Varnava
Archive (University of Kent at Canterbury, 1973), the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library and Museum (State University of Ohio, 1977), and the Caroline and Erwin Swann Collection (Library of Congress, 1977).
The criticism of Eco and Barthes was translated (in part) into English around the same time, opening up new vistas for analysis and appreciation in the prime territories of modern comic art. But while teaching classes at the School of Visual Arts in New York City (from 1973), the cartoonist Will Eisner found a dearth of
Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940
is practically tied to his Headquarters.’ 54 Adding that this was not a
criticism of the work done by the mission hospital, the PC finally
From the Mission point of view I doubt either
whether the present arrangement can be considered entirely
suitable as the Government duties to be performed must to a