From colonial to cross-cultural psychiatry in Nigeria
Matthew M. Heaton
(mental) health with the practice of global history.
Nationalism, anti-colonialism and Nigerian psychiatry
In the Nigerian context the transformation of colonial psychiatry into a cross-cultural and global psychiatry was spearheaded mostly by indigenous Nigerian psychiatrists, trained in British or British-modelled universities and hospitals in the 1950s and 1960s, who took over mental health institutions as part of Nigerian decolonization and practised in the first few decades after independence in 1960. Initially, these
Claire Beaudevin, Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Christoph Gradmann, Anne M. Lovell, and Laurent Pordié
War and the East–West divide, and on the other hand, the decolonization and emergence of numerous new nation-states whose economic, social and political life focused on the ‘need for development’ (Sidiqi, 1995 ; Amrith, 2006 ). This shift also stemmed from the emergence of biomedicine as the dominant form of medical knowledge. It became the basis upon which a rapid expansion of therapeutic tools could be envisioned as a driver of modernization. This period included the massive expansion of the pharmaceutical industry through both its research and development
of the ethnic Malay majority in the fledgling
nation’s new constitution.9 Thus, the historiography of the Japanese
occupation accords primacy to the Malay ethnic majority’s collective memory of the war. This dominant narrative promotes the occupation as a catalyst in the awakening of Malay nationalism, leading
to decolonization and self-determination.10 Experiences that diverge
from the national narrative are marginalized, including the suppression of Japanese atrocities during the occupation.
This chapter explores three selected exhumations dating from the
thoughts about these matters here align well with
these conversations. Postcolonial, Indigenous, critical race and
feminist studies have examined positionality in research in depth,
as part of re-envisioning ways of doing research that are centred on
values of responsibility and justice (e.g., Harding 2015 ). Indigenous critiques and related
efforts to decolonize anthropology (Harrison 2011 ; Vargas-Cetina 2013
Freeman, Carla. 2007. ‘The Reputation of Neoliberalism’. American Ethnologist 34(2): 252–67.
Harrison, Faye. 1997. ‘Ethnography as Politics’. In Decolonizing Anthropology.
Edited by Faye Harrison. Arlington, VA: Association of African American
Anthropologists, American Anthropological Association, 88–110.
Hepworth, Mark E. 1990. Geography of the Information Economy. New York:
Horst, Heather A. and Miller, Daniel. 2006. The Cell Phone: An Anthropology
of Communication. Oxford: Berg.
Ingold, Tim. 2011. Being Alive
Enacting human rights in mental health care in Ghana
Ursula M. Read
, White Coats: Nigerian Psychiatrists, Decolonization, and the Globalization of Psychiatry . Athens : Ohio University Press .
Human Rights Watch ( 2012 ) ‘ Like a death sentence”: abuses against persons with mental disabilities in Ghana . Human Rights Watch .
Jack , H. , M.
Canavan , E. Bradley and A.
in order to minimise the likelihood of significant differences hindering communication. Taking a leaf out of the ‘manifesto’, something deeper and more reflective is needed: ‘Delegation and education do not, however, decolonize governance: to embark on that requires a fundamental collective reorientation and self-examination. We need to map the collision of two culturally remote tectonic plates, two markedly different hyper-stories or poetic ontologies of exchange and value creation.’
The language of exchange