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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

barriers to dissemination (including a desire to manage their intellectual property and the need to move on to the next project, rather than spend unpaid time on communicating about the previous one). Equally, academics who are communicating about their research may not see dissemination of these events as a priority, since they may not align with their primary research interests. Furthermore, academics with an interest in research communication are often critiqued for their lack of awareness of practitioner needs and realities, and can appear distant or

in Creative research communication
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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

. Audiences, participants and public/s When many people first think about communicating their research they can sometimes be motivated by the desire to reach ‘the general public’. In fact, in research communication settings, as in many others, it has become uncommon to refer to a singular public; rather, it is recognised that participants in research communication come from a variety of backgrounds, communities, experiences and perspectives, and the idea of one exclusive and singular public is therefore problematic. In the past many researchers and communicators

in Creative research communication
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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

knowledge (Stewart, 2008 ), as an interested audience was essential in order to support the growing desire to conduct experiments and the associated need to fund the requisite apparatus (Riskin, 2008 ). Sir Humphry Davy, with the invention of the coal miner’s safety lamp, is often cited as providing one of the first examples of applied science, and accordingly his lectures at the Royal Institution in the early nineteenth century, and later through his presidency of the Royal Society, emphasised public benefit and appeal. Davy described the systematic nature of science

in Creative research communication
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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

participants will be drawn to the activity by the research topic, knowing little of the ‘craft’ that is being performed alongside, while others may be drawn by the craft, knowing little about the research area. Gauntlett ( 2011 ) argues that everyday craft and making are important routes to expression and avenues for pleasure and happiness in society. He suggests that the rise of the crafting movement reflects a desire for the personal and authentic in today’s consumer world, as well as reflecting a desire to share interests and connect with other like-minded people

in Creative research communication
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

central role in the communication of their own research. As Maile and Griffiths ( 2014a :17 emphasis in original) describe, such approaches indicate not only an instrumental perspective of knowledge but also a ‘ centralised diktat , rather than voluntary participation’ where public engagement is concerned. There are perhaps reasons why researchers from the arts, social sciences, design and other such disciplines (including the sciences) are wary of such developments. Whereas in the late 1990s it would have been a researcher’s own choice and desire to

in Creative research communication
Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

hackspaces, which are effectively community workshops and are also discussed in more detail below, was also identified by Charter and Keiller ( 2014 ). However, environmental motivations dominated amongst repair café participants, with volunteers indicating a desire to help others live more sustainably, to provide a service to the community or to extend the life of products as primary motivations (Charter and Keiller, 2014 ). Altruistic motivations have also been associated with citizen science projects (Dunn and Hedges, 2013 , Bonney et al. , 2009 ). Respondents to

in Creative research communication
Andrew C. Grundy

desire to strengthen the involvement and engagement of service users, carers and members of the public in research has been driven by: Partnership Consultation a. a strong moral argument that any publicly funded research that aims to benefit health status or health services should be shaped and informed by the people it will affect (Hanley, 2012) Informing b. accumulating evidence of the benefits of patient and public involvement in research (Staley, 2015) c. recognition that service users and carers, by virtue of their lived experience, can bring a wealth of

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Andrew Balmer and Anne Murcott

measured amounts to each other, they even sleep in separate rooms so as not to wear out their lives on each other, so as to avoid anything like the fluid mess of most people’s lives, and those who are closest to each other are as timed to be apart as anyone else. So at last she understands what wealth is, the desire for isolation and that’s why never in her life before, her days and nights of time, has she enlarged this way, has her mind enlarged to the space this way, and has this voice been heard this way in reflection of herself. And the point is that she is growing

in The craft of writing in sociology
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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

experience of engagement itself, beyond practical considerations (Lehr et al. , 2007 ). This might include how people conceive of their responsibilities, their desire to engage, definitions of engagement, relationships with expertise, as well as more straightforward aspects such as whether they even have the time to be involved (Pouliot, 2011 ; Hornig Priest, 2009 ; Michael, 2009 ; Kerr et al. , 2007 ; Irwin, 2001 ). In addition, very little is known about how that wider group of citizens regards and views outcomes of engagement, and whether they simply accept the

in Creative research communication
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Clare Wilkinson and Emma Weitkamp

media in general: how to strike a balance between the social norms of presenting information and phatic communication, which add authenticity, and a desire for privacy. According to Marwick and boyd ( 2011 : 124), ‘[t]he tension between revealing and concealing usually errs on the side of concealing on Twitter, but even users who do not post anything scandalous must formulate tweets and choose discussion topics based on imagined audience judgment’. This can be particularly problematic if you are using social media both for professional communication and to maintain

in Creative research communication