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Individuals acting together

does not get some overbalancing good from his sacrifice, and no one is entitled to force this upon him. 22 According to the doctrine, it is particularly important to bundle together the desires of a single individual. By contrast, no special importance attaches to a bundle which represents the desires of different individuals for the same end. That explains why the doctrine is invoked to

in Political concepts

). This chapter will show how the desired depth of coordination of propaganda proved challenging to impose on existing formal structures, particularly in the US. US bureaucracy is a loose sprawling mass compared to the British system, which is by contrast small, close-knit and relatively more disciplined. The chapter will show how insular agencies with strong institutional cultures impaired formal inter-agency cooperation and made strategic direction difficult. British and American military and political cultures differ markedly, with different cultures within sub

in Propaganda and counter-terrorism
The politics of consultation in Britain and Australia

This book attempts to understand how two sister centre-left parties, the British Labour Party and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), have sought to adapt to the modern era and effect changes. It identifies and examines a range of drivers for Labour's desire to experiment and find new forms of citizen engagement. Linked to the influence of the New Social Democracy (NSD) is the lingering legacy of the new public management (NPM) reforms implemented in the public sectors in both countries. For Labour, democratic renewal is an attempt to secure wider legitimacy in neoliberal settings; similarly, the NSD is also linked to the debates about the perceived shift from government to governance. The NSD has attempted to respond to these debates and in Britain a concerted effort has been made to reformulate the role of the state and, by extension, civil society. The book examines how far the NSD has influenced Labour governments in Britain and Australia. It establishes Labour's interest in democratic renewal, specifically, the role of political participation and civic engagement in the wider context of democratic theory. Given that the NSD calls for an 'active citizenry', this is important. A central motif of democratic theory is an ambivalence about the role of political participation in a modern liberal democratic polity. The book explores how far New Social Democratic governments in Britain and Australia have been successful in seeking to link new forms of public dialogue to existing democratic decision-making processes in the modern western world.

The influence of bureaucracy, market and psychology

Since the 1990s, European welfare states have undergone substantial changes regarding their objectives, areas of intervention and instruments of use. There has been an increasing move towards the prioritisation of the involvement of citizens and the participation of civil society. This book focuses on the altered (powerful) conditions for encounters between citizens and welfare workers. It uses the concept of soft power, which, inter alia, allows for the investigations of the ways in which individuals manipulate each other in an effort to achieve their desired goals. The first part of the book discusses extracts from state-of-the-art research on professions and expertise, and the perception of power that guides the analyses. It also discusses the overall theoretical positioning when analysing encounters between welfare workers and citizens as co-productive and interactionist. The second part presents analyses to show how a bureaucratic context affects the encounter between administrators and clients, and how a market context affects the encounter between service providers and consumers/customers. The analysis of how a psychology-inspired context affects the encounter between coaches and coaches is also provided. All three contexts are to be perceived as Weberian ideal types, in other words, theoretical constructs based on observations of the real world. The concluding part of the book emphasises on the role of the principles of the bureaucracy, the norms from psychology, and the values of the market in the welfare encounter. Key points of the book are summarised in the conclusion.

encyclopaedic account and retrieval of hope as manifested in the surplus desires of past cultures, movements, and wish-​images. Yet despite maintaining an enduring, militant hope at its core, most evaluations of critical theory, and of its place within the history of leftist thought, point to a profound and debilitating sense of loss, defeat, pessimism, and hopelessness. The Frankfurt School’s gloomiest remarks are often invoked simply to reproduce tired caricatures of ‘radicals in despair’,3 an aloof group of cultural mandarins offering precious little support for the

in Critical theory and feeling
A socio-cultural critique of the Celtic Tiger and its aftermath

This book examines the phenomenon of the rise and fall of the Irish Celtic Tiger from a cultural perspective. It looks at Ireland's regression from prosperity to austerity in terms of a society as opposed to just an economy. Using literary and cultural theory, it looks at how this period was influenced by, and in its turn influenced, areas such as religion, popular culture, politics, literature, photography, gastronomy, music, theatre, poetry and film. It seeks to provide some answers as to what exactly happened to Irish society in the past few decades of boom and bust. The socio-cultural rather than the purely economic lens it uses to critique the Celtic Tiger is useful because society and culture are inevitably influenced by what happens in the economic sphere. That said, all of the measures taken in the wake of the financial crash sought to find solutions to aid the ailing economy, and the social and cultural ramifications were shamefully neglected. The aim of this book therefore is to bring the ‘Real’ of the socio-cultural consequences of the Celtic Tiger out of the darkness and to initiate a debate that is, in some respects, equally important as the numerous economic analyses of recent times. The essays analyse how culture and society are mutually-informing discourses and how this synthesis may help us to more fully understand what happened in this period, and more importantly, why it happened.

extent to which the two partners within the Unionist alliance retained distinct identities which fuelled enthusiasm for an overhaul of party organisation.7 Chamberlain’s supporters thought that there were too many people like Mrs Balkwill in the Conservative rank-and-file who showed more concern with parading their social respectability than engaging meaningfully in the political battles of the day. The development of tariff reform as a popular movement was not only based on Unionists’ desire to find a policy which could secure their electoral future. In fact, tariff

in Conservatism for the democratic age
The liberalism of fear and modus vivendi

to use that agony in such a way that even when the agony is over, she cannot reconstitute herself. The idea is to get her to do or say things – and, if possible, believe and desire things, think thoughts – which later she will be unable to cope with having done or thought’.46 As such, what is most despicable about O’Brien’s torture of Winston is not the physical pain he causes but using that pain to get him to violate his most fundamental commitments, both about the physical (‘2+2=5’) and the moral world (‘Do it to Julia!’), and in doing so made him incapable of

in Liberal realism

heartening representations of imprisonment recall Michael Radford’s 1994 film Il postino (The Postman) treating the exile of Chilean poet Pablo Neruda to the island of Procida or Gabriele Salvatores’ Mediterraneo (1991), which represses issues relating to Fascism. Like with Radford’s and Salvatores’ films, in the texts treated in this chapter the exile experience serves as a convenient backdrop to narrate stories that are more pleasant and conform to the traditional logic of desire that dominates the classical cinema.18 Thus, and recalling Santner, in these films the

in Internal exile in Fascist Italy
Abstract only

this means has also traditionally been misunderstood. The fixed preferences of Stigler and Becker are simply preferences defined as what people want. What people want is determined by their relationships to one another and where they are in their life cycle. Their preferences, in other words, are completely structurally determined. Thus as people get older their desire for sports equipment may decline and their need for health-care products may increase. Small firms prefer few regulations, larger companies may prefer strict regulations simply because their size gives

in Power, luck and freedom