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. The focus of the chapter will be on certain sections from 7 Divine Love Speculum of the Other Woman (1985a), This Sex Which Is Not One (1985b), and particular essays from Sexes and Genealogies (1993b). Preliminary diagnosis Irigaray’’s initial investigations of the situation of women and their relation to God, as well as of the notion of desire, are undertaken in Speculum. In this intertextual exercise, Irigaray interacts with selective themes in the work of western philosophers – Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Descartes, Kant and Hegel. It is the opening study of

in Divine love
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A reading of Luce Irigaray’s Elemental Passions

The recognition of a female subject is relatively recent in Western philosophy, through Western intellectual history, it has been assumed to be normatively male. This book provides the first English commentary on Luce Irigaray's poetic text, Elemental Passions, setting it within its context within continental thought. It explores Irigaray's images and intentions, developing the gender drama that takes place within her book, and draws the reader into the conversation in the text between 'I-woman' and 'you-man'. In Irigaray's philosophy of sexual difference love is of ultimate significance for the development and mutual relationship of two subjects. The book explains how the lack of a subject position for women is related to the emergence of rigid binaries, and catches a hint of how subversive attention to fluidity is to the masculinist pattern. This emphasis on desire and sexual difference obviously intersects with the psychoanalytic theories of S. Freud and J. Lacan, theories which had enormous impact on French philosophers of the time. Irigaray has used vivid imagery from the very beginning of her writings. A few of her images, in particular that of the lips, have become famous in feminist writings. The development of mutually affirming sexual subjects, different but not oppositional, and thereby the destabilizing of traditional binary categories of oppositional logic, is simultaneously highly innovative and has far-reaching consequences. The book presents a critique of Irigaray's methods and contentions to critical scrutiny, revisiting the idea of fluidity in relation to logic.

was widely reported in the Jewish press, as was the need for more funding support if the explicit wish of Jewish philanthropy – ‘no Jew should see the inside of the workhouse’ – was to be fulfilled. To keep Jews out of the workhouse was a fundamental aim of Jewish philanthropy in Leeds. Hence, the 1870s was a propitious time to launch a philanthropic initiative in Leeds, because of the desire to use proper modes of enquiry in place of unregulated doles and as a response to the renewed harshness of the Poor Law. There was also a pressing

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
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dictator. He mentioned the Supreme Being again, reminding his hearers that when they agreed to the decree of 18 Floréal the very idea of a moral basis for the revolution was attacked by all of France’s enemies, stressing again the importance of accepting the idea of life after death, and reminding his hearers of how, on 20 Prairial, the entire nation had come together. The desire for some form of state morality or state support of religion brought into the open by Robespierre’s festival did not disappear after Thermidor; it merely sank back below the surface. The problem

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being

of pre-sixties ‘pious femininity’ as a starting point from which to assess the gendered expectations that surrounded the politics of courtship, chastity and desire. 7 The interviewees’ interpretation of their ‘innocence’ did not always accord with Brown’s story of imposed suppression. Instead, many remembered the climate of innocence and naivety that pervaded their early sexual development with a sense of

in The Pope and the pill

always free, aware, and in control of its own desires’. Free choice and respectful coercion If we began this chapter with Csordas's ( 1987 ) plea that more attention should be paid to the importance of the sacred in all healing encounters, this discussion of sacrifice as the primary vehicle for acknowledging the sacred may be taking us in different directions. Csordas's emphasis on the construction of sacred and medical realities is reflected in the shift of contemporary theories in medical anthropology to a focus on

in Descending with angels
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invariably informed their view of Hutchinson. Sharpe suggests that Hutchinson’s witchcraft scepticism was the result of two things: his desire to distance himself from a belief system increasingly considered by the elite as part of vulgar, popular culture; and his disinclination to view the universe as a place where immaterial forces regularly impinged on the day-to-day workings of the temporal world. Bostridge, on the other hand, 4 Salient examples of this can be found in Keith Thomas, Religion and the decline of magic: studies in popular beliefs in sixteenth and

in Witchcraft and Whigs

addressed in the textbook that outlined the desired approach to discussing sex. 19 The use of humour represented an important facet of a counsellor’s presentational style. In a section devoted to jokes, the manual read: Mild witticisms to ease the tension with laughter are essential, set piece jokes tend to fall flat and

in The Pope and the pill
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Emmanuel Levinas and Irigaray

women. Finally they both employ similar terms 56 Effacements to describe vital aspects of the radical transformation of ethics: desire, eros, infinité, transcendence, mystery, virginity. They have much in common, including the influence of Martin Heidegger. Irigaray, however, has chosen to disapprove of certain aspects of Levinas’s work – specifically those which concern his depictions of women, the ‘feminine’ and the relations between men and women.1 Levinas himself stated that he had been criticised by feminists,2 and would seem to be trying to respond to this in

in Divine love

most keen, and especially suited for eloquence, he quickly surpassed his coevals and easily surpassed the rest of the youths in the school, both in acquiring vocabulary and fluency in diction, as well as in the writing of prose and verse. Therefore, having tasted the sweetness of literature, by nature burning with the desire for learning, he sought out the Academy, as the source of all learning. So great a power of intelligence would have been able to grasp all the arts in order, if he had found suitable Doctors, and perhaps both the gentler studies of Philosophy and

in Luther’s lives