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From the margins to differentiated politicisations
Koen Slootmaeckers

Following the adoption of the Amsterdam Treaty, the European Union has been given a clear mandate to tackle discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. As discussed before, the ensuing adoption of the Employment Directive and the Charter of Fundamental Rights have embedded anti-discrimination principles within the acquis communautaire . This chapter analyses how the sexuality- and gender identity-related anti-discrimination framework developed in Serbia between 2001 and 2016 as part of the European integration process. In this period

in Coming in
Karin Fischer

147 6 Rights, segregation and discrimination The diversification of school types now facilitated by the Irish State has been ostensibly encouraged by the Catholic Church as well as by other interest groups involved in education, including minority religious groups and, more paradoxically, Educate Together. What are the advantages and drawbacks of this ongoing development from the perspective of inclusion, civic and social equality? A majority of Irish schools belong to and/or are managed by different private groups with specific interests and orientations

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
Greyhound racing in Britain, 1945 to the 1960s
Keith Laybourn

59 2 Discrimination and decline: greyhound racing in Britain, 1945 to the 1960s Surviving the Second World War relatively intact and experiencing an immediate post-​war boom, greyhound racing looked to have a promising future. Yet within four or five years that picture had changed dramatically. Problems with the British economic productivity in 1946 and 1947, with the bad winter of 1946/​47, undermined British post-​war industrial growth and may have been responsible for both the restrictions on greyhound meetings being held and the taxation imposed upon

in Going to the dogs
Koen Slootmaeckers

obliged to engage with equality policies through external forces. Indeed, as discussed in Chapter 3 , the adoption process of the anti-discrimination framework in Serbia was in large part the result of conditionalities of some sort where the government adopted new legislation because it was told to. In this chapter, 1 I turn to the implementation of this legislative framework, which has been described by observers as generally lacking – as the mandates given by law to change the country were simply about being seen to

in Coming in

In the last decade, Ireland's immigrant population grew to more than one in ten. Now in the midst of an economic crisis, the integration of immigrants has become a topical issue. This book offers a detailed account of how immigrants in Ireland are faring. Drawing extensively on demographic data and research on immigrant lives, immigrant participation in Irish politics and the experiences of immigrants living in deprived communities, it offers a thorough study of the immigrant experience in Ireland today. Chapters and case studies examine the effects of immigration on social cohesion, the role of social policy, the nature and extent of segregation in education, racism and discrimination in the labour market, and barriers faced by immigrants seeking Irish citizenship. The book contributes to the field of integration studies through its focus on the capabilities and abilities needed by immigrants to participate successfully in Irish society. It follows two previous books by the author for Manchester University Press: Racism and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2002) and Immigration and Social Change in the Republic of Ireland (2007).

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Europeans, Muslim Immigrants and the onus of European–Jewish Histories

Relations between Europe and its Muslim minorities constitute an extensive focus for discussion both within and beyond the Continent. This book reports on the years mainly between 2005 and 2015 and focuses on the exploitation of recent European history when describing relations and the prospects for the nominally 'Christian' majority and Muslim minority. The discourse often references the Jews of Europe as a guiding precedent. The manifold references to the annals of the Jews during the 1930s, the Second World War and the Holocaust, used by both the Muslim minorities and the European 'white' (sic) majority presents an astonishing and instructive perspective. When researching Europe and its Muslim minorities, one is astonished by the alleged discrimination that the topic produces, in particular the expressions embodied in Islamophobia, Europhobia and anti-Semitism. The book focuses on the exemplary European realities surrounding the 'triangular' interactions and relations between the Europeans, Muslims and Jews. Pork soup, also known as 'identity soup', has been used as a protest in France and Belgium against multicultural life in Europe and against the Muslim migrants who allegedly enjoyed government benefits. If the majority on all sides of the triangle were to unite and marginalize the extreme points of the triangle, not by force but by goodwill, reason and patience, then in time the triangle would slowly but surely resolve itself into a circle. The Jews, Christians, Muslims and non-believers of Europe have before them a challenge.

Separate but equal?

Separate but equal? Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland focuses on the historical and current place of religion in the Irish education system from the perspective of children’s rights and citizenship. It offers a critical analysis of the political, cultural and social forces that have perpetuated the patronage system, looks at the ways in which the denominational model has been adapted to increased religious and cultural diversity in Irish society and shows that recent changes have failed to address persistent discrimination and the absence of respect for freedom of conscience. It relates current debates on the denominational system and the role of the State in education to Irish political thought and conceptions of national identity in Ireland, showing the ways in which such debates reflect a tension between nationalist-communitarian and republican political outlooks. There have been efforts towards accommodation and against instances of discrimination within the system, but Irish educational structures still privilege communal and private interests and hierarchies over equal rights, either in the name of a de facto ‘majority’ right to religious domination or by virtue of a deeply flawed and limited view of ‘parental choice’.

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Sexual politics and EU accession in Serbia

LGBT rights have become increasingly salient within the EU enlargement process as a litmus test for Europeanness. Yet, they are also increasingly subject to contestation. To analyse the symbolism of LGBT rights in the EU enlargement process and its impact on LGBT politics in candidate countries, Coming in presents a novel relational and transnational conceptualisation of the Europeanisation process. Empirically the book analyses the promotion of and resistance to LGBT equality norms in Serbia’s EU integration process. Through a critical analysis, Coming in demonstrates that the EU enlargement process has created the opportunity for Serbia to politicise LGBT rights for its own goals and engage in, what this book has labelled, tactical Europeanisation. The book demonstrates how candidate countries can instrumentalise EU identity markers for their own political goals, undermining the impact of reforms on the ground. Overall, Coming in demonstrates the need for a more critical analysis of the politics embedded in the EU enlargement process that goes beyond institutional changes to included specific transnational configurations of politics and the complex (negotiated) outcomes they produce. In doing so, it raises critical questions about what we consider progress and the role of legal and institutional change within it. Rights without material change for people remain empty, make-believe signifiers of progress, as progress in law without a change in their lived experience remains hypothetical.

Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands examines how a wide range of immigrant groups who settled in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland from the 1990s are faring today. It asks to what extent might different immigrant communities be understood as outsiders in both jurisdictions.

Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands brings together research on a wide range of immigrant communities. The book provides a sharp contemporary account of integration that situates migrants’ diverse experiences of exclusion within a detailed overall picture of the range of ways in which they have succeeded socially, economically and politically in building their lives in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Chapters include analyses of the specific experiences of Polish, Filipino, Muslim, African, Roma, refugee and asylum seeker populations and of the experiences of children, as well as analyses of the impacts of education, health, employment, housing, immigration law, asylum policy, the media and the contemporary politics of borders and migration on successful integration.

Immigrants as Outsiders in the Two Irelands offers a unique cross-border perspective on migrants on the island of Ireland today which situates the Irish experience within the wider politics of migration control, Brexit and integration policy. This book is a significant and timely analysis suitable for students of migration at any level in a wide range of social science disciplines.

When a person is not recognised as a citizen anywhere, they are typically referred to as ‘stateless’. This can give rise to challenges both for individuals and for the institutions that try to govern them. Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship breaks from tradition by relocating the ‘problem’ to be addressed from one of statelessness to one of citizenship. It problematises the governance of citizenship – and the use of citizenship as a governance tool. It traces the ‘problem of citizenship’ from global and regional governance mechanisms to national and even individual levels. Part I examines how statelessness is produced and maintained, for example through global development efforts and refugee protection instruments. Part II traces the lived reality of statelessness, starting at conception and the issuance of birth certificates, then exploring the experiences of youth, workers, and older people. Part III demands a rethinking of the governance of citizenship. It interrogates existing efforts to address challenges associated with statelessness and suggests alternatives. Contributions span global regions and contributors include activists, affected persons, artists, lawyers, leading academics from a range of disciplines, and national and international policy experts. Written text, visual art, and poetry are also used to examine complex concepts central to this discussion. Statelessness, governance, and the problem of citizenship rejects the idea that statelessness and stateless persons are a problem. It argues that the reality of statelessness helps to uncover a more fundamental challenge: the problem of citizenship.