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Tower houses and waterways
Victoria L. McAlister

medieval Ireland's terrestrial environment, we cannot precisely compare the efficiency of different types of transport. This problem is further amplified by Ireland's topography, which is hugely localised in its differences, and by political conditions that would have made some transport options safer than others. If we apply the English evidence, despite these issues, we see that there was a significant cost differential between water- and land-based movement. This in turn influenced the distances individuals were prepared to travel. In England, small-scale sellers were

in The Irish tower house
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

Susan Martin

June 1975 a multidisciplinary team lead by Rosalie David undertook an unwrapping and dissection of 1770: the team included specialists in dentistry, facial reconstruction, conservation, diagnostic radiology, histopathology, entomology and organic chemistry (David 1978: 85–6; Tapp 1979). The poorly preserved condition of both the body and the wrappings meant that a literal unwrapping of 1770 was not a viable option. The textiles were generally too fragmentary to enable the routes that they took around the body to be easily followed for any great distance, and the

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Duncan Sayer

possible. For example, Ripley’s K-function analysis can be used to identify deviations from spatial homogeneity: the distance at which there is statistical significance in the proximity of groups of graves. This function can be used to investigate the mathematical evidence for clustering within a cemetery (Sayer and Wienhold, 2012 ). 1 Ripley’s K-function provides statistical proof of clustering at multiple scales in graphical form, and provides a numerical distance between points at which clustering occurs. These distances can then be imaged as heat maps or kernel

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
The changing role of migration museums in Australia
Andrea Witcomb

indicates, however, multicultural heritage was understood as non-Anglo-Celtic. The issue was quickly identified as problematic by a working party set up to develop the parameters for the Ethnic Museum. They argued that the name would set up distance between all the ethnic groups and the dominant Anglo-Celtic population. As a result, the working group ‘proposed a “display programme developed around the interlocking themes of migration and settlement” as an “exciting alternative” to the proposed displays representing different ethnic groups’.7 The museum thus opened as the

in Curatopia
Chantal Conneller

other. Here similarity relies not on an ideal type but on references to memories of the ways in which things were assembled in previous acts. Each new act, assembling similar things but under different sets of circumstances, would contribute to these distributed memories of making. This is the sort of replication that Valdez-Tullett explores in her study of Atlantic rock art (Chapter 7). These designs are found from Portugal to Ireland, and their strong similarity has been used to suggest long-distance contact. She notes identical micro-elements of designs across

in Images in the making
Victoria L. McAlister

designation would have aided in the economic development of the surrounding region. The ‘Great custom’ also shows that ports of the southeast dominated trade, with those of the west and northeast taking a secondary role ( ibid .). By 1402 distinction was made between the ‘large sea ports’ which were engaged in long-distance trade and the ‘small creeks’ that played a role in local and coastal trading as part of a three-tiered system that further evolved during the Tudor period (discussed in Jarvis ( 1959 ); applied to an Irish context in Breen ( 2007a ); O'Sullivan and Breen

in The Irish tower house
Lifeblood of the tower house
Victoria L. McAlister

, this meant that southeastern Ireland was dominated by wool production (O’Neill, 1987 ). The location of Cistercian farms along major rivers was convenient for long-distance sea-borne trading. The rivers Suir, Nore and Barrow passed through the lands of ten major Cistercian abbeys. Evidence for wool production has been found through excavation outside of this area, including at Kilcolman Castle in County Cork (Klingelhofer, 2010 ). Smaller farmers also weighed in on this activity, it was not just the remit of the big estates. As foreign merchants were not allowed

in The Irish tower house
Environment and economy
Victoria L. McAlister

collected the fish from the weir and gave the landowner the right of first refusal, a set cut of the catch and a fixed monetary rent for continued use of the weir (Hoffmann, 1996 ). We also find leases of weirs, and this arrangement dominated after the Black Death, when population levels meant leasing was the easiest and most practical way to ensure a steady income. Prime fish could travel great distances to reach market. In 1524 a group of merchants from the English port of Chester leased the salmon fisheries of the River Bann, in the middle of Ulster, from the earls of

in The Irish tower house
Duncan Sayer

, just a few millimetres, could certainly result from nutritional rather than ethnic differences (Tyrell, 2000 ). However, increasingly we are becoming aware that a large part of stature is determined by genetics, and it is interesting that archaeology often emphasises the environment and health aspects of stature, but does not explore how much variation is attributable to genetic effects, and how much is attributable to biological distance or relatedness (Lai, 2016 ). Recent genomic studies have tried to connect phenotypical and genetic variation statistically and

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries