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Tower houses and waterways
Victoria L. McAlister

medieval Ireland's terrestrial environment, we cannot precisely compare the efficiency of different types of transport. This problem is further amplified by Ireland's topography, which is hugely localised in its differences, and by political conditions that would have made some transport options safer than others. If we apply the English evidence, despite these issues, we see that there was a significant cost differential between water- and land-based movement. This in turn influenced the distances individuals were prepared to travel. In England, small-scale sellers were

in The Irish tower house
Susan Martin

June 1975 a multidisciplinary team lead by Rosalie David undertook an unwrapping and dissection of 1770: the team included specialists in dentistry, facial reconstruction, conservation, diagnostic radiology, histopathology, entomology and organic chemistry (David 1978: 85–6; Tapp 1979). The poorly preserved condition of both the body and the wrappings meant that a literal unwrapping of 1770 was not a viable option. The textiles were generally too fragmentary to enable the routes that they took around the body to be easily followed for any great distance, and the

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
The changing role of migration museums in Australia
Andrea Witcomb

indicates, however, multicultural heritage was understood as non-Anglo-Celtic. The issue was quickly identified as problematic by a working party set up to develop the parameters for the Ethnic Museum. They argued that the name would set up distance between all the ethnic groups and the dominant Anglo-Celtic population. As a result, the working group ‘proposed a “display programme developed around the interlocking themes of migration and settlement” as an “exciting alternative” to the proposed displays representing different ethnic groups’.7 The museum thus opened as the

in Curatopia
Victoria L. McAlister

designation would have aided in the economic development of the surrounding region. The ‘Great custom’ also shows that ports of the southeast dominated trade, with those of the west and northeast taking a secondary role ( ibid .). By 1402 distinction was made between the ‘large sea ports’ which were engaged in long-distance trade and the ‘small creeks’ that played a role in local and coastal trading as part of a three-tiered system that further evolved during the Tudor period (discussed in Jarvis ( 1959 ); applied to an Irish context in Breen ( 2007a ); O'Sullivan and Breen

in The Irish tower house
Environment and economy
Victoria L. McAlister

collected the fish from the weir and gave the landowner the right of first refusal, a set cut of the catch and a fixed monetary rent for continued use of the weir (Hoffmann, 1996 ). We also find leases of weirs, and this arrangement dominated after the Black Death, when population levels meant leasing was the easiest and most practical way to ensure a steady income. Prime fish could travel great distances to reach market. In 1524 a group of merchants from the English port of Chester leased the salmon fisheries of the River Bann, in the middle of Ulster, from the earls of

in The Irish tower house
Lifeblood of the tower house
Victoria L. McAlister

, this meant that southeastern Ireland was dominated by wool production (O’Neill, 1987 ). The location of Cistercian farms along major rivers was convenient for long-distance sea-borne trading. The rivers Suir, Nore and Barrow passed through the lands of ten major Cistercian abbeys. Evidence for wool production has been found through excavation outside of this area, including at Kilcolman Castle in County Cork (Klingelhofer, 2010 ). Smaller farmers also weighed in on this activity, it was not just the remit of the big estates. As foreign merchants were not allowed

in The Irish tower house
Learning from experiment and experience
Rosalind Janssen

magazine, in the running of their own, now long-standing, Egyptology societies and as sought-after lecturers at conferences both at home and abroad. It is those firm foundations laid by Professor David as an educator and the resultant reputation of the University of Manchester as a provider of Egyptology for adult learners that has enabled the current Egyptology Online distance learning courses, run by Joyce Tyldesley and Glenn Godenho from the Faculty of Life Sciences, to prove equally popular to a now global audience. This is particularly significant when we have in

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Roger Forshaw

Greek literature, and Egypt appears to have been elevated above other foreign lands as a source of Greek practice and ideals. Herodotus, Solon, Plato, Pythagoras are all reputed, with varying plausibility, to have visited Egypt and been influenced by the culture and perceived ‘wisdom’ of the country. Greek architecture, sculpture and bronze hollow-cast statuary were inspired by Egyptian contacts. Long-distance trade and exchange, still a royal monopoly, also continued with Nubia as it had throughout much of Pharaonic history, although specific the saite era 8

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
The politics of co-collecting
Sean Mallon

contemporary token closing some of that distance, and healing a sense of loss.28 These events show how objects in museum collections can maintain a life cycle within the institution that sees them connect, reconnect and disconnect with people. Some scholars use the metaphor of biography to describe this process and talk of objects as having biographies or social lives despite being in museums and supposedly static.29 One may be able 285 286 Pacific to imagine the pressure museum staff come under to accept donations and honour the histories and relationships that are

in Curatopia
Curatorial bodies, encounters and relations
Noelle M.K.Y. Kahanu, Moana Nepia and Philipp Schorch

the illusory nature of cultural, spiritual, and intellectual separation which can be overcome through the physical and emotional connectivity of a simple and genuine act of ritual encounter: a honi that has compressed both time and distance across generations. In the Pacific, interpersonal encounters are characterised by a deep level of physical intimacy and engagement – from the honi/hongi, the face-to-face greeting, to the ha‘a/ haka wero, these rituals of encounter also serve as an acknowledgement of living ancestral presences. In these physical exchanges

in Curatopia