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Janice Norwood

5 Long-distance colonial touring The challenges of touring in North America were magnified for those intrepid actresses who took their theatrical skills further afield, to Australia and the colonies. Among those doing so in the 1860s were Don and Cleveland. Don played Australia and Tasmania with her husband in 1860–62, returning for a two-year solo tour in June 1864 (this time also visiting New Zealand) prior to spending a year in the US. This second visit overlapped with Cleveland’s, who was in Australia and New Zealand for just over six years from February 1864

in Victorian touring actresses
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Defining the Relationships between Gothic and the Postcolonial
William Hughes and Andrew Smith

The Gothic has historically maintained an intimacy with colonial issues, and in consequence with the potential for disruption and redefinition vested in the relationships between Self and Other, controlling and repressed, subaltern milieu and dominant outsider culture. Such things are the context of obvious, visible irruptions of the colonial Orientalist exotic into the genre, whether these be the absolutist power and pagan excesses of Beckford‘s Vathek (1786), the Moorish demonic temptations of Zofloya (1806) or the perverse, corrupting influence of a western invader upon a primitivised European in the ImmaleeIsadora episodes of Maturin‘s Melmoth the Wanderer (1820). These are, in a sense, horrors beyond, the exoticism of time and space distancing the problematic text from the comfortable, identifiable world of the contemporary and the homely a reassurance comforting even in a reading of the Irish episodes of Melmoth the Wanderer, where geographical marginality anticipates a borderland as distant from metropolitan sensibilities as effective as those of later writers such as Hope Hodgson, Machen or Rolt. The colonial is both kept at a distance and in a state of suggestive vagueness, of resemblance rather than obvious representation, its horrors accessible though thankfully not immanent.

Gothic Studies
Nathaniel Leach

This article argues that Charles Maturins Melmoth the Wanderer embodies an ethical attitude towards its representations of Gothic violence and horror in the way that it self-reflexively stages its horrific scenes. By confronting its readers with a shifting distance from such violent scenes, the novel exposes readers to their own desire for and victimization by Gothic horror. While previous critics have tended to see Maturins novel as either glorying amorally in its excessive Gothic representations, or as recuperating its scenes of horror with a moral message, this article sees its ambiguous and undecidable attitude towards these scenes as embodying its ethical standpoint, a standpoint that challenges the illusion of literary coherence and that exposes its readers’ implication in the horror that lies traumatically within, and not safely outside, language.

Gothic Studies
The Experience of Dislocated Listening
Rashida K. Braggs

“It is only in his music [. . .] that the Negro in America has been able to tell his story. It is a story which otherwise has yet to be told and which no American is prepared to hear,” so wrote James Baldwin in “Many Thousands Gone.” Throughout his career, James Baldwin returned to this incomprehension of African-American experience. He continually privileged music in his literature, crafting his own literary blues to address it. Baldwin’s blues resonated even more powerfully and painfully for its emotional and geographical dislocation. In this article, Rashida K. Braggs argues that it was the combination of music, word, and migration that prompted Baldwin’s own deeper understanding. Exploring her term dislocated listening, Braggs investigates how listening to music while willfully dislocated from one’s cultural home prompts a deeper understanding of African-American experience. The distance disconcerts, leaving one more vulnerable, while music impels the reader, audience, and even Baldwin to identify with some harsh realities of African-American experience. Baldwin evokes the experience of dislocated listening in his life and in “Sonny’s Blues.” Braggs also creates an experience of dislocated listening through her video performance of Baldwin’s words, thus attempting to draw the reader as well into a more attuned understanding of African-American experience.

James Baldwin Review
James Baldwin’s Just Above My Head
Jenny M. James

This article considers James Baldwin’s last published novel, Just Above My Head (1979), as the culmination of his exploration of kinship, reflecting on the ways distance and loss characterize African-American familial relations. By analyzing Baldwin’s representation of Hall Montana’s relationship to, and mourning of, his younger brother Arthur, this article argues that JAMH revises the terms of the black family to imagine an alternative, errant kinship that is adoptive, migratory, and sustained through songs of joy and grief. My approach to the novel’s portrayal of kinship is indebted to Édouard Glissant’s Poetics of Relation (1990), in which he defines “errantry” as a fundamental characteristic of diaspora that resists the claustrophobic, filial violence and territorial dispossession that are slavery’s legacies. Baldwin represents errant kinship in JAMH through his inclusion of music and formal experimentation. Departing from previous scholarship that reads JAMH as emblematic of the author’s artistic decline, I interpret the novel’s numerous syntactic and figurative experiments as offering new formal insight into his portrait of brotherly love. Baldwin’s integration of two distinctive leitmotifs, blood and song, is therefore read as a formal gesture toward a more capacious and migratory kinship.

James Baldwin Review
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Epistemology and Revolution in Charles Brockden Brown‘s Wieland
David Smith

In Wieland, Charles Brockden Brown attempted to negotiate varying forces confronting contemporary American religious and political life. Through the transformation of the temple into a Gothic zone Brown injects questions of epistemological uncertainty, clashing forces of rational Enlightenment and supernatural faith. Brown outlines the religiously motivated founding of the nation reacting to European oppression as allegorical to the Wieland patriarchs journey from the Old to New World, and his construction of the temple demonstrates the establishment of new institutions in the American landscape. Religious liberty turns into extremism, producing Gothic violence that transforms the temple into a site of horror and destruction. His children attempt to re-transform the temple along rational Enlightenment lines much the same as Brown perceived the need for America to distance itself from its revolutionary and religious extremist origins. Yet the failure of rationalism to expunge the supernatural aura from the temple allows for the tragic events to transpire that comprise the bulk of the novel. Ultimately, Brown‘s Gothic novel evinces the critical nature of the epistemological clash he sees taking place for the direction America will take, and his concerns that Gothic violence will reverberate throughout future generations find their expression in Wieland‘s temple.

Gothic Studies
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Tightrope walking in an afflicted style
Richard Danson Brown

’. In doing so, I am drawing on Viktor Shklovksy's suggestive model of literary style in Theory of Prose (1929). His remarks about poetic language are congruent with most readers’ first experience of The Faerie Queene . He sees it as a device of ‘enstrangement’, or defamiliarisation. 26 In Shklovsky's terms, poetic language is artificially distanced from ordinary language in order to slow the reader down to enhance the text's semantic and artistic charge. Such ‘impeding language’, he suggests, is ‘the very hallmark of the artistic

in The art of The Faerie Queene
Carter’s ambivalent cinematic fiction and the problem of proximity
Marie Mulvey-Roberts

, illusion and identification – fundamental aspects of the cinematic apparatus – as a problem to be transcended (2007: 8). The radical spectator for Godard is someone not taken in by the cinematic illusion, but who holds the images at a distance and recognizes them as constructed. Therefore, if Godard is taken as the model for the influence of cinema on Carter’s fiction, it might give the impression that she was primarily preoccupied with breaking traditional cinematic techniques and criticizing the cinematic apparatus. However, as some of Carter’s remarks above make clear

in The arts of Angela Carter
Megan Cavell and Jennifer Neville

The riddles of early medieval England do not exist in a vacuum. They interact. Like other riddles, of course, they are the site of interaction between a riddler and a riddlee, but they also reveal points of contact with the world in which they were created and with which they still interact today. These interactions occur on many levels: between texts within one manuscript, between collections within an overall tradition, between genres/disciplines within an intellectual tradition, between material cultures separated by time and distance, and between poets

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
Angelika Zirker

becomes an observer of what is going on within himself – which, simultaneously, creates distance from and involvement with what is being witnessed. The soliloquy as an inner debate serves, and has done so since Augustine, to make inward processes visible. During the early modern period, this technique or mode of speaking becomes integrated into fictional texts: the soliloquy is no longer restricted to devotional writing but finds its way into

in William Shakespeare and John Donne