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The case of Universal Health Insurance – by competition
Cliona Loughnane

lack of equal access to quality healthcare for all citizens and the health inequities between citizens. This chapter continues with a discussion of how the trajectory of health policy in Ireland enabled the imagining of UHI-C. The UHI-C documents will then be examined in terms of four elements of governing in an advanced liberal state: seeking to govern at a distance; placing responsibility on individuals through choice; the management of risk; and the fragmentation of the social sphere into multiple communities. The analysis will suggest that the outcome of UHI

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
Mirrored narratives of sanity and madness
Vicky Long

her goal of raising public consciousness about the plight of the insane, and closing her account by echoing Clifford Beers’s arguments for reform to protect the legal status of the mentally ill in America.85 However, both authors carefully distanced themselves from their fellow patients, distinguishing between their state of inner turmoil and distress, and the visible insanity which surrounded them. Grief and mental distress, both writers inferred, was a wholly different matter from the stereotypical insanity performed around them. They depicted fellow patients as

in Destigmatising mental illness?
‘Good fit’ in artificial eardrums
Jaipreet Virdi

the advantage of his device was that it did not irritate as Toynbee’s silver wire did, the cotton-​wool was extra absorbent, and easily used by patients; moreover, the ‘hearing distance is improved’.26 As well, solutions for soaking Yearsley’s cotton wool were changed, and the pellet was reshaped to a wick, arguably to better support the ossicles.27 Patient testimonials additionally provided an avenue for aurists to gauge the success of material designs. Empirical tests were used to objectively measure hearing amplification. Distance tests with ticking watches

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Katherine Foxhall

the Canary current welled up from the ocean and aided southerly journeys, the shimmering volcanic peak of Tenerife rose in the distance to a height of two miles. Lying in their berths, prostrate with seasickness during the early part of the voyage, many migrants might well only have heard only ‘the cracking tone of command and the wild hoarse response of the seamen’ on the decks above their heads. 1 As they spent more time on deck in the calmer, warmer waters beyond Europe, men and women who had never been to sea before appreciated

in Health, medicine, and the sea
The re-orientation of German orthopaedics
Heather R. Perry

‘orthopaedists’ reflected the physicians’ effort to distinguish themselves and their healing specialty as a medical field independent of surgery – and not simply a subset within that ‘parent field’.34 Moreover, just as orthopaedists were beginning to distance themselves from surgeons in their professional associations in the first decade of the twentieth century, so too did they begin laying the educational framework for maintaining the occupational standards they were in the process of establishing – a move clearly evident with the publication of the first modern orthopaedic

in Recycling the disabled
Catherine Cox

gaols and tried to avoid the stigma of criminalisation. Distance from the asylum was also a factor. Distance has been conceptualised in various ways; it can denote ‘social distance’ and ‘the different ways in which information about services filtered into an area which Clifford Geertz termed as “local knowledge.”’116 In this chapter, distance is analysed in terms of physical proximity to the asylum, and the relationship between it and use of the dangerous lunatic legislation. Other definitions of ‘distance’ are explored in greater depth in the next chapter. The

in Negotiating insanity in the southeast of Ireland, 1820–1900
Abstract only
Catherine Cox

procedure also assisted in the establishment of asylums and medicine within a social distance. While the language of certification emphasised ‘violence’, the warrants from the period 1838 to 1868 indicate that both lay people and doctors reported environmental factors and changes to patients’ physical and internal states as psychiatric aetiologies. There is evidence that families and dispensary doctors pathologised patients’ internal life and emotional states. The sources reveal further evidence of the impact that emigration had on nineteenth-century life and on patterns

in Negotiating insanity in the southeast of Ireland, 1820–1900
Joanne Wilson and Lindsay Prior

neoliberal governmentality, including the shift towards a market-based model of health; the distribution of power across a range of agents and agencies of health (‘governing at a distance’); and the increasing individualisation of health, which places responsibility upon each citizen to look after his or her own health by behaving in appropriate and recommended ways. We conclude that while the decision to devolve responsibility to others may avoid claims of paternalism, an increasing focus on the individual prioritises individual agency as the means to advancing health at

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
Mikko Myllykangas

the European debate on suicide from the north-eastern corner of Europe, the geographical distance and especially socio-economic remoteness between Finland and the leading countries of modernisation presented Westerlund with a bird's eye view of the burning question of the connection between suicide and industrialisation, urbanisation, and modern society. Westerlund, like his contemporaries, acknowledged that suicide – the most repugnant of sins for over a thousand years – was a disease brought about by progress, a dark stain that signified a modern society. In this

in Progress and pathology
Quarantine and the colony
Katherine Foxhall

1838, he observed that ‘a talent for managing men [...] is no less necessary in a surgeon selected to bring out emigrants than medical skill’. 59 John Reid seemed unable to manage either the emigrants on his ship or his professional relationships with the colonial officers. After his angry outbursts about quarantine causing contagion, Reid did not receive his pay. 60 The modern conception that diseases like typhus are specific biomedical entities, unchanged by time and distance, simply did not exist in the first half of the

in Health, medicine, and the sea